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"""■""""" ■""■""—"■- 



■"""""""■"'" 



V 



^ 



THE INFERNO OF DANTE ALIGHIERI 



** A translation should present a true photograph of the 
original.** —Bishop of Ripon. 

** The lineaments of a poem are^ in great part, in its 
rhythm,** «, 

'* As its tune is to a song, and as its savour to a dishy 
so is its rhythm to a poem.** 



THE INFERNO 

OF DANTE ALIGHIERI 



LITERALLY TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH VERSE 
IN THE MEASURE OF THE ORIGINAL 



BY THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

SIR SAMUEL WALKER GRIFFITH 

G.C.M.G., M.A., CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE HIGH COURT 
OF AUSTRALIA 



SYDNEY 
ANGUS & ROBERTSON, Ltd. 

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY 
1908 



^t> 



^ y-/'/ 







PRINTED BY JOHN SANDS LIMITED, SYDNEY 



I DESIRE to express my grateful acknowledgments 
to Mr. C, J. Brennan, M.A., for his valuable 
criticisms and suggestions, without which any 
merit which this translation may possess would 
have been greatly diminished. 



ERRATA 

Paije 3y line 51. Delete comma 

„ ;/<?, ,, 47' Delete second comma 

,, 83 y ',, 40. For branch read brand 

„ 104, „ 43. For I read V 

,, 180y ,, 94- Delete second C07nma 



INFERNO 

CANTO I 

Midway upon the road of our life's journey 
I found myself within a dark wood faring ; 
For the straight way was lost by misadven- 
ture. 3 
Ah me ! how hard a thing it is, the telling 

What this wood was, how wild, and rough and 

stubborn, 
Which wakes my fear anew at the mere 

thinking : 6 

-I is so bitter, death is scarce more bitter. 

But, that the good I found there I may treat 

of, 
I will tell of the other things that there I 

witnessed. 9 

I cannot well repeat how there I entered ; 
I was so full of slumber at the moment 
When I the pathway of the truth abandoned. 1 2 
But, when I came to where a hill uprises, 
The place whereat that valley terminated 
That with the lance of fear had pierced my 

bosom, 1 5 



2 DANTE [Canto I 

I looked oil high, and I beheld its shoulders 
Clothed with the rays already of the planet 
Which leadeth all men straight through every 

pathway. 1 8 

At that the fear was quieted a little 

Which in the deep lake of my heart had lasted 
Throughout the night I spent in plight so 

piteous. 2 1 

And as one who, when he with breath distressful 
Forth from the deep unto the shore hath 

issued, 
Turns back and gazes on the perilous water, 24 

3o did my mind, continually retreating, 

Turn backward to survey the path that never 
Had yet allowed a living soul to issue. 27 

When I my weary body awhile had rested, 
I took my way along the desert upland. 
So that the firm-set foot was alway lower : 30 

And lo ! there, almost at the steep's beginning, 
A panther, light of tread and very nimble, 
That with a coat of spotted fur was covered, 33 

And never from before my face departed : 
Indeed, so much did it impede my journey. 
Time and again I turned me for returning. 36 

The time was at the morning's first commencement. 
And with those stars the sun was mounting 

upward ^ 
That were beside him when, in the beginning, 39 



Canto I] INFERNO 3 

The Love Divine set those fair things in motion : 
So that I had good reason to be hopeful 
As to that creature with its skin bedizened, 42 

Both from the hour of time and the sweet season : 
Yet not so that the aspect of a lion 
That came in sight did not with fear inspire me : 45 

He seemed as if he bent his course against me, 
With head held high and filled with rabid hunger, 
So that it seemed the very air did fear him : 4^^ 

And a she-wolf, that seemed in her much leanness 
With every sort of craving to be laden. 
And had before made many folk live abject, — 5 1 

She put so much of heaviness upon me 

With the great fear that issued from her aspect 
That I lost hope of reaching to the summit. 54 

And as one is who gathers riches gladly. 

And comes the time which maketh him a loser. 
Who then in all his thoughts doth moan and 

sorrow, 57 

Even such an one that beast unresting made me. 
Which, coming on to meet me, thrust me 

backward. 
Little by little, where the sun is silent. 60 

While I was tottering back into the lowland. 
Before my eyes one had himself presented 
Who seemed grown faint by reason of long 

silence. 63 

When I in the great wilderness espied him, 



DANTE 



[Canto I 



I cried aloud to him : " Have pity on me, > 

Whatever thou be, or shade or man authentic." 66 
He answered me : '* Not man ; a man aforetime 
I was, and Lombard people were my parents, 
And Mantuans were both of them by country. 6g 
Sub Julio I was born, though late my advent, 
And lived at Rome under the good Augustus, 
And in the time of the false gods and lying, 72 

Poet I was and singer of that righteous 

Son of Anchises, who from Troy came hither 
After proud I lion was burned to ashes, 75 

But thou, why dost return to such annoyance ? 
Why dost not climb yon mount of delectation, 
That is the source and cause of all rejoicing ? " 7S 
' And art thou theu that Virgil, and that fountain 
Which poureth forth so wide a flood of lan- 
guage ? " 
I answered him with reverent brow and 

bashful: 81 

' O light and honour, thou, of other poets. 
May the long study and the great affection 
Profit me now, that made me search thy 

volume. 84 

Tliou art my master, and thou art my author : 
And thou alone art he from whom I borrowed 
The jKjIished style that hath achieved me 

honour. a 7 

Look at the beast, for cause whereof I turned me : 



Canto I] INFERNO 5 

Give me thine aid, O famous sage, against 

her : 
For she doth make my veins and pulses 

quiver." 90 

* Behoveth thee to take another journey," 

He made reply, when as he saw me weeping, 
* * If thou from this wild place wouldst find a 

refuge : 93 

For this same beast, for cause whereof thou criest. 
To pass along her way allows no stranger, 
But hindereth him so far that she doth slay 

him. 96 

Nature hath she so wicked and malicious 
That never doth she sate her ravenous 

craving, 
And after food is hungrier than before it. 99 

Many the living things with which she couples. 
And more there will be still, until the grey- 
hound 
Shall come, even he who makes her die of 

sorrow. 102 

He shall not feed upon or land or lucre. 
But upon wisdom, upon love and virtue. 
And native shall he be 'twixt Feltro and 

Feltro : 105 

Of Italy's low estate he shall be saviour, 

For whose sake maid Camilla died, and Turnus, 
And Nisus, and Euryalus, in battle. 108 



6 DANTE [Canto I 

He shall pursue her flight through every city, 
Till he remit her to the infernal prison, 
The place whence envy wrought her first 

departure. m 

And therefore, for thy good, I thus determine. 
That thou do follow me, and I will guide thee, 
And hence will take thee through a place 

eternal, 114 

Where thou shalt hear the desperate lamentations, 
Shalt see the ancient spirits in their dolour. 
Where for the second death each one makes 

outcry : 117 

And then thou shalt see those who are contented 
In fire, because they have a hope of coming 
Unto the blessed folk, or soon or later ; 1 20 

To whom then if to ascend thou art desirous, 
A fitter soul than I for that will meet thee : 
With her at my departing I will leave thee. 123 

For that Imperial Lord who reigns up yonder, 
Because against his law I was rebellious. 
Will not through me grant access to his city. 1 26 

In all parts is he Emperor ; there he governs ; 
There is his city, and his throne exalted ; 
Oh ! happy he whom to be there he chooses." 129 

And I to him : ** O poet, I entreat thee 

By that same God of whom thou hadst not 

knowledge, 
So that I may escape this ill and greater, 132 



Canto I] INFERNO 7 

That thou do take me where thou now didst tell 
me, 
That I may see the portal of St. Peter, 
And those thou makest out to be so mournful/' 1 3 s 

Then set he forth ; and I held close behind him. 



CANTO II 



The day was now departing, and dun twilight 
Was rescuing from their weariness all creatures 
That are on earth ; and I, one and one only, 

Was making ready to sustain the warfare 
As well of the long road as of the pity, 
The which my, mind, which doth not stray, 
shall picture. 

O Muses, aid me now, O lofty talent ! 

O mindj who wrotest down that which I 

witnessed, 
Here thy nobility shall be apparent. 
'* O poet," I began, '* thou who dost guide me, 
Mark well my valour, if it is enduring, 
Ere to the pass profound thou dost commit me. 

The father of King Silvius, thou tellest. 
While still corruptible, had grace to visit 
The immortal world, and sensibly was present : 

Yet, if the adversary of all evil 

Favoured him, thinking of the high fulfilment 
To flow from him, the person and his greatness, 

To man of wit he doth not seem unworthy. 
For he of mother Rome and of its empire 
In empyrean heaven was chosen for father : 



IS 



15 



iS 



Canto II] INFERNO 9 

Which empire and which city, truth to utter, 
Were for that holy place ordained and stab- 

lished 
Where the successor sits of greater Peter. 24 

By that same journey, whence thou giv'st him 
glory, 
Things understood he which were the occasion 
Both of his triumph and of the papal mantle. 27 
Thither went afterward the Chosen Vessel, 
That thence he for that faith support might 

gather 
Which of salvation's path is the beginning. 30 

But why should I come there ? And who doth 
grant it ? 
I am not Paul, nor yet am I Mness : 
Worthy thereof nor I nor others deem me : 33 

Wherefore, if to such coming I surrender, 
I fear me that the coming may be foolish. 
Thou art wise : more than I say thou under- 

standest." 36 

And as one is who what he wished un wishes, 
And for new thoughts exchanges his set pur- 
pose, 
So that he quite departs from his beginnings, 39 

Such I became upon that gloomy hillside ; 
Because in thought the enterprise I wasted 
Which had at the beginning been so eager. 42 

If of thy words I have right understanding," 



lo DANTE [Canto II 

That shade of the magnanimous made answer, 

' ' Thy soil! by cowardice is overpowered, 45 

Which oftentimes doth so a man encumber 
That back from honest enterprise it turns him, 
As false sight doth a beast, when shades are 

falHng. 48 

That from this dread thou may'st thyself deliver, 
I .why I came will tell thee, and what was told 

me 
At the first moment when I sorrowed for thee. s i 

I was among the throng of those who hover : 
When lo ! so fair and blest a lady called me 
That I did beg of her to give commandment. 54 

Brighter than beams the star her eyes were 
shining ; 
And sweetly gan she speak to me and gently, 
In utterance with voice as of an angel : 5 7 

O courteous soul, of Mantua aforetime, 

Whose fame is in the world to-day enduring, 

And shall endure to the world's furthest distance, 60 

One who is friend of mine and not of fortune 
Is so much hindered in the desert upland 
Upon his road, that he for fear hath turned 

him : 63 

And much I fear me he hath strayed already 
So far that I arose too late for succour, 
Moved by what I heard of him in heaven. 66 

Therefore go forth, and with thy ornate language, 



Canto II] INFERNO ii 

And whatso else for his escape is needful, 
So aid him that I may thereby be solaced. 69 • 

Beatrice am I, who send thee on this journey : 
I come from where I long to be returning : 
Love urged me, which inspires me now to 

speaking. 72 

When I shall be before my Lord in presence, 
Full often will I sound thy praises to him.' 
With that she held her peace, and then began 

Ir 75 

' Lady of virtue, thou, by whose sole merit 
The human race exceedeth every content 
Within the heaven which hath its circles 

lesser, 78 

So grateful is to me this thy commandment, 
That, had I obeyed already, it still were tardy : 
Needs not thy will to me to open further ; 8 1 

But tell me for what cause thou hast not spared 
thee 
From coming down below into this centre 
From the ample place where to return art 

burning.' 84 

* Knowledge so intimate since thou desirest,' 

She answered me, * I in few words will tell 

thee 
Why herewithin I do not fear to enter. 87 

We ought to be afraid of those things only 
Which have capacity to do us mischief : 



12 



DANTE 



[Canto II 



But the rest, no, because they are not fearful. 
Such am I made by God — to Him be glory — 
That this your misery doth not afifect me, 
Nor doth the flame assail me of this burning. 
A gentle lady is in heaven, who pities 

This hindrance whereunto I give thee^errand, 
So that she mitigates on high stern judgment. 
She sought Lucia out to do her bidding ; 

And said : '' Lo I now thy faithful servant 

needs thee, 
And I do recommend him to thy keeping." 
Lucia^ foe of whatsoe'er is cruel, 

Set forth, and thither came where I was hiding : 
I there was sitting with the ancient Rachel, 
' Beatrice, very praise of God, why dost not 

Thou succour him," she said, '* who so much 

loved thee 
That for thy sake the vulgar throng he 
quitted ? 
Dost thon not hear the anguish of his weeping ? 
Seest thou not the death with which he 

battles 
Upon the flood where sea may cease from 
vaunting ? " 
Never upon the earth were persons instant 
To make their gain, and to escape their 

damage, 
So much as I was after such words spoken. 



90 



95 



96 



99 



102 



los 



io8 



1 1 1 



Canto II] INFERNO 13 

Straight from my blissful bench I came down 
hither, 
My trust reposing in thy noble language, 
Which honours thee and whosoe'er hath 

heard it.' 114 

After she had discoursed with me in this wise, 
With tears she turned her shining eyes to 

heaven. 
Whereby she made me readier still for coming. 1 1 7 
So came I to thee, even as she wished me : 

I uplifted thee before that fearsome creature 
Which blocked thy short access to the fair 

mountain. 1 20 

Therefore, what is it ? Why, why art thou 
halting ? 
Why in thy heart such cowardice dost 

shelter ? 
Why hast thou naught of valiance and of 

ardour, 123 

Seeing that three such ladies, ever blessed. 
Make thee their care within the court of 

heaven. 
And my own words so great a boon assure 

thee?" 126 

In what wise flowerets, by the nightly hoarfrost 
Bent down and closed, when that the sun illumes 
them, 



14 DANTE [Canto II 

Start up quite straight upon their stems wide 

open, 129 

In such wise did I with my fainting virtue : 
And to my heart there ran so fine an ardour 
That I began, as might a valiant person : 132 

** Oh ! pitiful is she who gave me succour. 

And courteous thou, who promptly wast 

obedient 
Unto the words of truth she put before thee. 1 3 5 
Thou hast with such desire my heart determined 
By these thy words for going on this journey, 
That I am turned again to my first purpose : 138 
So go : for of us twain is one will only : 

Guide art thou ; thou art lord ; and thou art 

master/' 
Thus said I : and, as soon as he had started, 1 4 1 
I entered on the deep and savage pathway. 



CANTO III 

* Through me the road is to the city doleful : 
Through me the road is to eternal dolour : 
Through me the road is through the lost folk's 

dweUing : 3 

Justice it was that moved my lofty Maker : 
Divine Oninipotence it was that made me, 
Wisdom supreme, and Love from everlasting : 6 

Before me were not any things created. 
Save things eternal : I endure eternal : 
Leave every hope behind you, ye who enter." 9 
These words in colour dark beheld I written 
Upon the topmost lintel of a gateway : 
Whence I : ** Master, their sense is hard 

upon me." 12 

And he to me, as one full well acquainted : 
* * Here must be left behind all thought of 
danger ; 
Here every sort of cowardice must perish : 1 5 

Now are we at the place wherein I told thee 
That thou shalt see the folk of many dolours, 
Who have lost the good that understanding 

gave them." 18 

And then, his hand on mine first gently laying. 



i6 



DANTE 



[Canto III 



With cheerful face, wherefrom I gat me com- 
fort, 
Within, unto the secret things, he brought me. 
Here sighs and lamentations and shrill wailings 
Resounded through the air by stars un~ 

hghted ; 
Wherefore I wept thereat, e'en at the outset- 
Horrible jargons, tongues of divers peoples, 
Accents of anger, words of bitter sorrow, 
Shrill and faint voices, sounds of hands among 
them, 
Made a tumultuous uproar, that for ever 
Eddies athwart that air's eternal blackness, 
As sand when there is blast of coming whirl- 
wind. 
And I, who had my head begirt with horror, 
Said: "Master, what is this that I am hearing ? 
And what folk is't that seems so whelmed in 
dolour ? " 
And he to me : " This miserable condition 
Keep the sad souls of those who in their life- 
time 
Were without infamy and without praises ; 
Commingled are they with that caitiff chorus 
Of angels who aforetime were not rebels. 
Nor faithful were to God, but stood as neutral. 
Heaven drave them forth lest they should mar 
its beauty; 



21 



24 



37 



30 



53 



36 



39 



Canto III] INFERNO 17 

Nor doth the lower depth of hell receive them, 
Since that from them the damned would gain 

some glory.'* 4-2 

And I : *' What weighs so heavily upon them, 
Master, that maketh them lament so loudly ?" 
He answered : '* I will tell thee very briefly : 45 

These have not any hope of death to cheer them ; 
And the blind life of them is so ignoble 
That they are envious of all other fortune : 48 

That fame of them should be the world allows 
not : 
Mercy and justice both alike disdain them : 
Discourse we not of them, but look and pass 

them." 5 1 

And I, who looked intently, saw an ensign 

That round and round so rapidly was running 
That of all pause it seemed to me impatient : 54 

And after it there came so long a trailing 
Of folk, that I would never have believed it 
That death could have undone so great a 

number. 5 7 

When I had recognised one and another, 

I saw the shade of him, ay, and I knew him. 
Who made from cowardice the great renounce- 
ment. 60 

Incontinent perceived I, and was certain, 
That this before me was the crew of caitiffs, 
To God and to his enemies displeasing. 63 



iS 



DANTE 



[Canto III 



These abject creatures, who had ne*er been living, 
Were naked all, and irritated sorely 
By buzzing flies and wasps, that there were 
biding. 
And these with blood made streaks upon their 
laces, 
Which, fallen to their feet, with tears com- 
mingled, 
Was gathered up by worms of loathsome 
aspect. 
And, when I had set myself to look stOl further, 
Folk saw I at the brink of a great river : 
Wherefore I said : " Master, now do thou 
grant me 
To know what sort they are, and by what order 
They seem to be so eager to cross over ; 
As by the feeble light I can distinguish." 
And he to me : ** The things will be apparent 
To thee, what time we two shall stay our foot- 
steps 
By Acheron, upon its dismal margin." 
And I thereat, with reverent eyes and downcast, 
Fearing lest words of mine were irksome to him, 
As far as to the stream held back from speak- 
ing. 
And lo ! towards us coming in a vessel 

An old man, whom his ancient locks made 
hoary, 



66 



69 



72 



75 



78 



Sf 



Canto III] INFERNO 19 

Crying out : '* Woe to you, ye souls un- 
righteous ; 84 
Cherish not hope of ever seeing heaven ; 
Unto the other bank I come to take you, 
To heat and frost, in the eternal darkness. 87 
And thou, O living soul, who standest yonder. 
These all are dead : depart thou from among 

them." 
But, when he saw that I was not departing, 90 

He said : ** By other road, by other ferries, 
Shalt come to shore, not here to find a pas- 
sage : 
Behoves a lighter bark to bear thee over.'* 93 

To him my guide : ** Charon, restrain thy fury ; 
Thus is it willed there where can be accom- 
plished 
Whatever is willed — and further ask no question." 96 
Then instantly the shaggy cheeks were quiet 
Of him, the pilot of the livid marish. 
Who had his eyes with wheels of flame encircled. 99 
But those souls, who were weary all and naked. 
Changed colour, and they clashed their teeth 

together 
Directly that they heard the cruel saying. 1 02 

Blasphemed they God himself and their own 
parents. 
The human race, the place, the time, the 
sowing 



ao 



DANTE 



[Canto III 



O* the seed they sprang from, and their own 
beginnings. 
Then they retreated, one and all together, 
Bitterly weeping, to the brink accuised 
Which for all men who fear not God is waiting. 
Charon, the fiend, with eyes of burning charcoal, 
Beckoning them on, all in one throng collects 

them I 
And with his oar he smites whoever hngers. 
As leaves go fluttering down in time of autumn, 
One following close the other, till the branches 
See all their spoils upon the ground together. 
Even in such wise the evil seed of Adam 

Cast themselves one by one down from that 

margin. 
Each at a sign, like bird at lure familiar. 
They go their way thus o'er the dusky waters. 
And, ere on yonder side they are unladen, 
On this side a new troop again assembles. 
** My son," thus said to me the courteous master, 
" All those who die in purview of God's anger 

Come here together out of every country ; 
And they are fain to pass across the river. 
Because God's justice as with spur doth urge 

them. 
So that their fear is turned to inward longing. 
Here never comes a righteous soul for passage : 
And so, if Charon makes complaint about thee, 



105 



108 



1 1 1 



lU 



117 



123 



126 



Canto III] INFERNO 21 

Now well canst understand what means his 

saying." 129 

This being ended, all the gloomy champaign 
Trembled so mightily that the remembrance 
Of the affright even now with sweat doth bathe 

me. 132 

The tearful earth gave forth a blast that 
lightened 
With sudden flash, suffused with light ver- 
milion, 
That overcame in me all sense of feeling, 135 

And I fell down like one whom slumber seizes. 



CANTO IV 

Broke in my head the bonds of the deep slumber 
A heavy thunder-roll, so that I started, 
As doth a person who by force is wakened : 3 

And my well rested eyes I cast around me. 
Risen erect ; and gazed with fixed attention, 
That I might know the place where I was 
[j faring. 6 

The truth is that I found me on the border • 
That hedges in the dolorous vale abysmal, 
Which gathers thunder-roll of endless wailings. 9 

Dark was it and profound, and was so cloudy, 
That, though I fixed my vision on the bottom, 
I could not anything therein distinguish. 1 2 

** Now in the sightless world down here descending 
We go ;*' all ashy pale began the poet : 
*' I will be first, and thou shalt be the second." 1 5 

And I, who of his hue had taken notice. 

Said: ** How shall I come on, if thou art 

affrighted, 
Who art wont to be a comfort in my doubt- 
ing ? " 18 

And he to me : ** The folk in their sore anguish 
Who are here below depict upon my features 



Canto IV] INFERNO 23 

That pity which for dread thou hast mistaken. 2 1 
Let us go on ; for the long road impels us." 

Thus set he forth, and thus he made me enter 

In the first circle that the abyss engirdles. 24 

Therein, so far as listening was of service, 

There was no lamentation, save of sighing, 

That made the eternal weight of air to quiver. 27 
This came to pass from sorrow without torments. 

That the crowds had, which were both great 
and many. 

Of little children, and of men, and women. 30 

To me the master kind : " Dost thou not ask me 

What spirits these are here, whom thou be- 
holdest ? 

Now I would have thee know, ere thou go 

further, 33 

That they sinned not : and yet that they have 
merits 

Sufi&ceth not, because they had not baptism. 

Which is a portion of the faith thou boldest : 36 
And, if they were before the Christian advent, 

They did not render unto God due worship. 

And I of such as these myself am also. 39 

For such defects, and not for other forfeit, 

Are we among the lost, and only troubled 

At this, that without hope we live in longing." 42 
Great grief seized on my heart when that I heard 
him; 



24 DANTE [Canto IV 

Considering that folk of worth exceeding 

I knew of, who were hovering in that Umbo. 45 
'* Tell me, dear master, O my lord, pray tell me,'' 

Began I, in my wishing to be certain 

Of the one faith which overcomes all error, 48 

'* Went ever any hence, or by his merit. 

Or by another's, to be blest thereafter ? " 

And he, who understood my covert speaking, 5 1 
Made answer : "In this state I was a novice, 

When I beheld a mighty one come hither. 

With sign of victory incoronated : 54 

From hence he took the shade of the first parent, 

Of his son Abel, and the shade of Noah, 

Of Moses, lawgiver and law-abiding, 57 

The patriarch Abraham, and monarch David, 

Israel with his sire, and with his children. 

And Rachel for whose sake so much he 

laboured, 60 

And many more beside, and made them blessed : 

And I would have thee know that not before 
them 

Did human spirits ever gain salvation." 63 

We left not going by reason of his speaking ; 

But through the wood we passed on notwith- 
standing — 

I mean the wood of multitudinous spirits. 66 

Not very far as yet our road had brought us 

This side my slumber, when I saw a burning 



Canto IV] INFERNO 25 

That overcame a hemisphere of darkness. 69 

Still from it we were at some little distance, 
Yet not so far but partly I distinguished 
That honourable folk possessed that region. 72 

*' Oh ! thou who honourest both art and learning, 
Who are these yonder who have such great 

honour 
That from the fashion of the rest it parts 

them?" 7 5 

And he to me : '* The honoured reputation 
Which in thy life above is sounded of them 
Gains grace in heaven, which gives them such 

distinction.'* 78 

A voice was heard by me while he was speaking : 
" Give honour to the most exalted poet : 
His shade returns again, which had de- 
parted/' 81 
When that the voice had ceased and all was quiet, 
Beheld I four great shades who came towards us : 
Semblance they had nor sorrowful nor joyful. 84 
The gentle master 'gan to speak in this wise : 
" Mark him who with that sword in hand is 
coming 
In front of other three, with lordly geslure : 87 
That one is Homer, sovereign of poets : 
Satirist Horace comes the next in order : 
Ovid the third is, and the last is Lucan. 90 
Seeing that each with me hath equal title 



26 



DANTE 



[Canto IV 



Unto the name the single voice hath sounded, 

They do me honour, and therein do rightly/' 
Thus did I see the noble school united 

Of those great lords of song the most exalted, 

Which soars above the others as an eagle. 
After they had conversed somewhile together, 

They turned to me with sign of salutation ; 

And seeing it my master smiled approving. 
And greater honour still by far they did me, 

For in their company they made me comrade, 

So that I was a sixth *mid such great talent. 
Thus went we on as far as the bright shining. 

Speaking of things which now to leave in silence 

Is fit, as was the speaking where it happened. 
We came unto a noble castle's basement, 

That was seven times with lofty walls en- 
circled, 

And round about by a fine brook was guarded : 
That, as on solid ground, did we pass over : 

Through seven gates I entered with those 
sages, 

Arriving at a meadow of fresh verdure : 
Therein were folk with eyes grave and slow 
mo\ing; 

Of great authority in their appearance : 

They spake but rarely, and with gentle voices. 
On one side we withdrew ourselves in such wise 

Upon a rising ground, weU lit and open^ 



95 



96 



99 



1 03 



lOS 



to8 



II r. 



I T^ 



Canto IV] INFERNO 27 

That they could, one and all, be seen distinctly. 1 1 7 
There, right in front, upon the green enamel 

The spirits of the mighty dead were shown 
me ; 

And I exalt myself at having seen them. 1 20 

I saw Electra there with many comrades, 

'Mongst whom I knew both Hector and 
iEneas ; 

Caesar equipped for war, with eyes of falcon : 123 
I saw Camilla, and Penthesilea : 

On the other side I saw the King Latinus 

Sitting beside Lavinia his daughter : 126 

Brutus I saw, the same who drove out Tarquin, 

Lucretia, Julia, Martia, and Cornelia : 

And Saladin I saw, apart and lonely. 129 

When I had raised a little more my eyebrows, 
. The master of those who know I saw before me. 

Sitting amid a philosophic household : 132 

All gaze upon him and all do him honour. 

Thereby I saw both Socrates and Plato, 

Who, before all the rest, to him stand nearest ; 135 
Democritus, who founds the world on hazard, 

Zeno, and Anaxagoras, and Thales, 

Empedocles, Diogenes, Heraclitus ; 138 

And saw the kindly gatherer of simples — 

Dioscorides I mean : and saw, too, Orpheus, 

Moralist Seneca, and TuUy, and Linus, 1 4 1 

Ptolemy, Euclid the geometrician, 



28 DANTE [Canto IV 

Averroes, who wrote the famoas Comment, 
Galen, Hippocrates, and Avicenna. 144 

I cannot draw of all in full the picture. 

Because my lengthy theme so fast doth drive 

me 
That ofttimes at the fact my speech is faint- 
ing. 147 

The six-fold company in two is parted : 

By other road my sage conductor leads me 

Forth from the calm into the air that quivers ; 150 

And to a place I come where is no shining. 



CANTO V 

Thus from the primary circle I descended 

Down to the second, which less space engirdles, 
And so much more of woe that goads to 
wailing. 
There Minos stands and snarls with dreadful 
aspect : 
Of sins he makes an inquest at the entrance, 
Judges, and sends according to his girdling. 
I mean that, when the soul, bom imto sorrow. 
Appears befgre him, all things are ac- 
knowledged ; 
And that discerner sure of all transgressions 
Seeth what place in hell is its fit mansion. 

He with his tail so many times doth gird him 
As are the stages down he wills to send it. 
Alway in front of him a throng is standing : 
They go, each one in turn, unto the judg- 
ment ; 
They speak ; they hear ; and then they are 
hurled downward. 
O thou, who comest to the lodge of sorrow," 
Thus Minos spake to me, when that he saw 
me, 



30 DANTE [Canto V 

Leaving the function of so mighty office, 1 8 

'* Watch how thou enterest, and whom thou 
trustest : 
Let not the entry's ample space deceive 

thee." 
To him my leader : '* Wherefore, pray, this 

outcry ? 2 1 

See that thou hinder not his destined going : 
Thus is it willed there where can be accom- 
plished 
Whatever is willed — and further ask no 

question/' 24 

Now are the doleful notes of woe beginning 
To reach my sense ; and now I am come 

thither 
Where sound of weeping manifold assails me. 27 
I came to a place that of all light is silent. 
That bellows like the sea in time of tempest, 
If it is combated by winds opposing. 30 

The infernal hurricane, that never ceases. 
Carries the spirits onward with its rapine : 
With tossing and sore smiting it afflicts them. 33 
When they arrive in face of the sheer downfall. 
There shrieking is, and moans and lamenta- 
tion : 
There they blsispheme against the power of God- 
head. 36 
I understood that unto such like torment 



Canto V] INFERNO 31 

Are damned eternally the carnal sinners. 
Who make their reason subject to their 

passions. 39 

And as their pinions bear along the starlings. 
In the chill time, in wide and full battahon, 
In such wise doth that blast the wicked 

spirits : 42 

Hither and thither, up and down, it bears them ; 
Nor any hope encourages them ever. 
Not to say hope of rest, but of less torment. 45 
And as cranes go, crooning their doleful dirges, 
Making, a long line of themselves in heaven. 
In such wise saw I come, with drone of wail- 

ings, 48 

Shades borne upon the windy strife I tell of. 
Wherefore I said : " Dear master, who are 

yonder 
Folk, that in such wise the black air chastises ?" 51 
' The first of those of whom thou art desirous 
Tq know the stories," said he to me straight- 
way, 
" Of multitude ol tongues was sovereign em- 
press ; 54 
To vice of wantonness she was so i^roken 
That in her code she made all liking lawful, 
To do away the blame wherein she had fallen. 57 
She is Semiramis, of whom books tell us 

That she was spouse of Ninus and successor : 



32 DANTE [Canto V 

She held the land the Soldan keeps in order. 60 
That other, she who slew herself love-stricken, 
And broke her troth to the ashes of Sichaens. 
Next in the line is wanton Cleopatra. 63 

See Helen, for whom time so long and guilty 
Rolled on its course : and see the great 

Achilles, 
Who at the end with love must wage his battle : 66 
Paris and Tristan see.** More than a thousand 
Shades showed he me (and named them) with 

his finger, 
Whom love from this our life made take 

departure. 69 

After that I had heard my dear instructor 

Mention by name the knights and ancient 

ladies. 
Came pity, and I was, as 't were, bewildered. 72 

I thus began : " Dear poet, I would gladly 
Speak to that pair of souls who go together. 
And seem to float upon the wind so lightly.'* 75 
And he to me : '' Thou wilt observe when nearer 
They are to us, and then do thou entreat 

them 
By the love that guides them : so they will 

come hither.** 78 

As soon as unto us the wind inclined them, 

I lifted up my voice : ** O souls sore troubled ! 
Come, speak to us, unless One else denies it.** 81 



Canto V] INFERNO 33 

In what sort doves, by inward longing sum- 
moned 
To their sweet nests, with wings ui)raised and 

steady 
Come through the air, by their own will borne 

onward, «4 

Such they, from the battalion where is Dido, 
Sped, coming to us through the air malefic : 
So mighty was the outcry of affection. 8; 

** O living creature, gracious and benignant. 
That goest through the purple air to visit 
Us, who upon the world made stain ensan- 
guined, 9t> 
If but the King of the Universe were friendly. 
We would entreat him humbly for thy wel- 
fare. 
For that thou hast pity on our perverse evil. 93 
• Whate'er to hear and what to speak may please 
thee, 
That we will hearken, and to you will answer. 
While as the wind, as now it doth, keeps 

silence. 9^> 

Lieth the land of which I was a daughter 
Upon the sea-cosist, where the Po goes down- 
ward 
To find repose with his attendants round him. 9() 
Love, that at gentle breast is quickly lighted, 
Caught him beside me by the form of beauty 



34 



DANTE 



[Canto V 



They snatched from me : and still the way 

offends me. 102 

Love, that gives no one loved reprieve from 
loving, 
Caught me by the delight of liim, so mighty 
That, as thou seest, he still doth not desert 

me. 105 

Love led us twain unto one death together : 
Calna waits him who our life extinguished/' 
These words from them unto our ears came 

floating. 108 

Soon as I understood those souls offended, 
1 bowed my face, and held it down so stead- 
fast, 
Till said to me the poet, *' What art musing?" 1 1 1 
When I made answer, I began, " O pity ! 
W^hat tender musings and what eager longing 
Have brought these twain unto this pass of 

sorrow/' 114 

With that I turned my face to them ; then 
spake I : 
And I began : '* Franceses, thy sore torments 
Wring from me tears of sadness and compassion. 1 1 7 
But tell me : in the time of tender sighings, 
By what and how was it that love conceded 
That ye should come to know your dubious 

longings ? " 120 

And she to me : ** There is no greater sorrow 



Canto V] INFERNO 35 

Than to recall to memory times of gladness 

In misery ; and that well wots thy teacher. 123 

But if to have knowledge of the first enrooting 
Of this our love thou hast so strong a passion, 
I will as one who, weeping, tells his story. 1 26 

One day, by way of pastime, we were reading 
Of Lancelot, how love in fetters held him : 
We were alone, and without thought of 

danger. 129 

Full often did that reading bring together 
Our glances, and made colourless our visage ; 
But just one point was that which overcame 

us: 132 

When as we read how that the smile much longed 
for 
Was kissed by one so passionately loving, 
He who from me shall never be divided 135 

Kissed me upon the mouth, all, all a-quiver : — 
A Galehalt was the book and he who wrote 

Upon that day we read therein no further." 138 
The while that the one spirit told this story, 
The other wept so sorely that, for pity, 
I swooned away as though I had been dying, 141 
And fell, even as falls a lifeless body. 



CANTO VI 



At the return of sense, which closed its vision 
Before the piteous lot of the two kinsfolk, 
That had confused me utterly with sadness* 

New torments, and new victhns of the torment, 
I see around me, move I wheresoever, 
Of turn, or wheresoever my gaze I fasten. 

In the third circle, that of rain, I am faring, 
Eternal rain, accursed, cold, and heavy ; 
Measure and quality there nGver changes : 

Enormous hail, and snow, and filthy water, 
Down through the murky air are ever pouring : 
The earth which taketh in this fall is fetid. 

Cerberus, cruel and misshajien monster, 

Barketh with triple throat in doglike fashion 
Over the folk which in that place is sunken. 

Vermihon eyes he hath, beard black and greasy. 
And belly wide, and bands arrayed with talons. 
The spirits he doth scratch, and flay and 
quarter : 

The pelting rain sets them like dogs a-barking : 
They make the one side shelter for the other : 
The wretched miscreants ! they toss for ever. 

When Cerberus, the mighty worm, perceived us, 



» 9 



12 



li 



iS 



Canto VI] INFERNO 37 

His mouths he opened wide, and showed his 

tushes ; 
Nor had he Umb that he could keep from 

trembhng. 24 

And at full span my guide stretched out his 
fingers, 
Laid hold upon the ground, and in great fist- 

fuls 
He flung it straight into the ravenous gullets. 27 
As is yon dog that barking craves a morsel, 

And then grows quiet when he sets to gnawing, — 
For his sole aim and fight are to devour it, — 30 
So did compose themselves those filthy faces 
* O' the demon Cerberus, who with his clamour 

So stuns the souls they fain were deaf entirely. 3 3 
Over the shades we passed, that in subjection 
The heavy rain holds fast, and set our foot- 
steps 
On their vain show that seems to be a person. 36 
They on the ground were lying, all and sundry. 
Save one of them, which sudden rose up 

sitting. 
The moment that it saw us pass before it. 39 

' Oh ! thou who through this hell art being taken. 
Recognise me," it said, ** if thou art able : 
Thou wert, before I ceased to be, in being." 42 

And I to it : ** The anguish thou endurest 
Haply withdraws thee from my recollection. 



38 



DANTE 



[Canto VI 



So that it seems not that I saw thee ever : 

But tell me who thou art, that in so doleful 
A place thou art set, and at such sort of penance, 
That, if some greater be, none is so irksome/' 

And it to me : " Thy city, that with envy 
Is choked so fnll the sack o'etflows already, 
Held me as hers in yonder life unclouded : 

You citizens were used to call me Ciacco : 
By reason of the belly*s ruinous vices. 
As thou dost see, I droop beneath the rain- 
fall. 

And, sad soul though I be, I am not single ; 
For all of these to a like doom are sentenced 
For a like fault : '' and no word more he 
uttered. 

I answered him : " Ciacco, thy sore affliction 
So weighs on me that it invites to weeping. 
But tell me. if thou know'st, what they will 
come to, 

The citizens of the divided city ? 

If any there is just ? And tell me also 
The reason why such discord hath assailed 
her." 

And he to me : *' They, after long-drawn 
struggle, 
Will come to bloodshed, and the rustic party 
Will hunt the other out with much of insult : 

Then shortly needs must be that this one also 



45 



48 



SI 



54 



s; 



60 



63 



66 



Canto VI] INFERNO 39 

Shall fall within three suns, and rise the other 
With might of one who even now is tacking : 69 
A long time shall it keep its brows exalted, 
Keeping the other under heavy burden, 
Howe'er it moans thereat and is indignant. 72 

Two just there are, but there they are not 
hearkened : 
Pride overbearing, avarice, and envy, 
Are the three sparks that set on fire their 

bosoms.'* 7 5 

Here to his tearful drone he put an ending. 
And I to him : *' I still would have thee 

teach me. 
And make a gift to me of further speaking : 78 

Tegghiaio and Farinata, they so worthy, 
Jacopo Rusticucci, Arrigo, Mosca, 
The rest who set their minds upon well-doing ; 8 1 
Tell me where are they, and let me recognize 
them ; 
For great desire constrains me to have know- 
ledge 
If heaven soothes them, or if hell empoisons.'* 84 
And he : ** They *mong the blackest souls are 
biding : 
Guilt diverse weighs them down unto the 

bottom : 
If thou descend so far, thou there may*st see 

them, 87 



40 DANTE [Canto VI 

But, when in the sweet world thou shalt be 
faring, 

I pray thee bring me to the mind of others : 

No more I tell thee, and no more I answer." 90 
With that his straight-set eyes askew he twisted. 

Stared at me awhile, and then his head 
bowed downward : 

With it he fell to the other blind ones' level. 93 
And said to me my guide : ** No more he wakens 

On this side of the sound o' the trump angelic, 

What time the hostile magistrate comes hither : 96 
Each one shall find again his tomb of sorrow ; 

Each shall take up again his flesh and features ; 

Shall hear what doom resounds for everlasting. * ' 99 
Thus made we traverse through the loathsome 
mingling 

Of shades and of the rain, with leisured paces. 

Touching upon the life to come a little. 102 

And thereupon I said : *' Master, these torments. 

Will they increase after the last great sen- 
tence, 

Or lesser grow, or will they be as poignant ? " 105 
And he to me : '' Return unto thy science. 

Which hath it that, the more a thing is per- 
fect, 

More hath it sense of good, and so of dolour. 108 
So, notwithstanding that this folk accursed 

Never advances unto true perfection, 



Canto VI] INFERNO 41 

Yet more on that side than on this it looks 

for." Ill 

Veering along the road we made a circuit, 
Speaking a good deal more which I repeat 

not. 
We came unto the point where one goes 

downward: 114 

There found we Plutus, the great enemy, sta- 
tioned. 



CANTO VII 

** Pape Satan Pape Sat^n alepp&," 

Plutus with voice discordant made beginning. 
And that kind sage, who of all lore was master, 3 
To give me comfort said : ** Thy fear need give thee 
No trouble, for all power that he possesses 
Shall not deprive thee of this crag for passage. 6 

Then to that bloated countenance he turned 
him. 
And said : " Hold thou thy peace, thou wolf 

accursed : 
Inly consume thyself with thine own fury : 9 

Our going to this depth lacks not occasion : 
Thus is it willed in the high place, where 

Michael 
Wrought vengeance on the pride-begotten out- 
rage." 12 
Even as sails that by the wind are bellied 
Drop down entangled when the mast is broken, 
In such wise fell to earth the cruel monster. 1 5 
Thus down to the fourth hollow we descended, 
Making more way along the slope of dolour. 
That the whole universe's ill empouches. 1 8 
Justice of God ! that it can pack together 



Canto VII] INFERNO 43 

Such novel painS and travails as I witnessed ! 
And why is our own fault thus our destruc- 
tion ? 2 1 
As doth the wave above Charybdis yonder, 
Which breaks upon the other it encounters, 
So the folk here must in a ring go dancing. 24 
Here more than elsewhere saw I folk a many 
Coming with mighty howls from either quarter, 
Rolling great weights by the sheer force of 

breast-bone. 27 

They smote each other, meeting : then each 
turned him 
Round on that very spot, rolling reversewise ; 
Shouting : " Why hold so tight ? " '* Why 

cast so freely ? *' 30 

Thus were they turning through the gloomy circle, 
On every hand, unto the point opposing, 
Shouting again their old refrain of insult. 33 

Then each turned back, when, through his own 
half circle, 
He had attained unto the other tourney. 
And I, who felt, as 't were, at heart com- 
punction, 36 
Said : '* My dear master, show me now, I pray 
thee, 
What folk is this ; and if they all were clergy, 
These on our left hand with the cleric tonsure." 39 
And he to me : ** In the first life so squinteyed 



-w 



DANTE 



[Canto VII 



4Si 



43' 



51 



They, one and all, were in theit unders tail ding 
That in their spending they observed no measure. 4* 
Clearly enough the voice of them doth bark it. 
What time they reach the points upon the circle 
Where fault antagonistic doth dispart them. 
Clergy were these, who have no hairy cover 
On head, w^ith popes and cardinals among them, 
Whom avarice chooses for its worst excesses.*' 
And I : '* With such as these, dear Master, 
surely 
I ought to recognise among their number 
Some who were lilthy with these very evils/' 
And he to me : " Vain thought thou enter- 
tainest : 
The same unknowing life that made them 

loathsome 
Against all knowing of them now embrowns 
them. 
For ever they shall come to the two buffets : 
These from the tomb shall have their resur- 
rection 
With close-shut fist, and those with hair 
a-lacking : 
Ill-giving and ill-keeping hath deprived them 
Of the fair world, and set them to this quarrel : 
What hke that is, I waste no words to adorn it. 
Now canst thon see, my son, how vain and short- 
lived 



54; 



57^ 



60 I 



Canto VII] INFERNO 45 

Are the good things committed unto fortune, 
For which sake human folk set on each other. 63 
For all the gold on which the moon now rises, 
Or ever rose, would be quite unavailing 
To set one of these weary souls at quiet." 66 

** Master," I said to him, '* now tell me also : 
This fortune, that thou hintest at, what is it. 
Which the world's goods hath so within its 69 
clutches ? " 
And he to me : " O ye insipid creatures. 

How great the ignorance which doth oppress 

you : 
Now will I have thee to imbibe my doctrine. 72 
That One, whose knowledge vast transcendeth 
all things — 
He made the heavens, and gave them one who 

guides them, 
So that to every quarter every quarter 75 

Shines, portioning the light in equal measure. 
And, similarly, over mundane splendours 
He set a minister-in-chief and leader, 78 

Who should transfer in time the vain possessions 
From race to race, from one blood to 

another. 
Beyond the hindrance set by human wisdom : 8 1 
Whence doth one race bear rule, another lan- 
guish, 
According to the judgment that is secret. 



46 



DANTE 



[Canto VII 



Even as the snake that lurks among the 

herbage, 84 

Yoor knowledge hath no place to stand against 
her : 
She doth foresee, she judges, and continues 
Her reign, as theirs the other heavenly powers. %7 

Her changes have no intervals of respite, 
Necessity compels her to be speedy : 
And thus they win their turn in quick succes* 

sion . 90 \ 

And this is she who suffers crucifixion 

Even from those who should have given her 

praises, \ 

Giving her blame unjust and evil speaking. 9jn 

But she is inly blest, and that she hears not : 
Glad with the other fi.rst*born of creation, 
She roils her sphere, and blessed, she rejoices. 96 

But now let us go down to greater anguish : 
Even now each star is sinking that was rising 
When I set out^ and lingering is forbidden." 99 i 

We cut the circle to the other border, 

Above a bubbling spring that, overflowing. 
Runs down a torrent-course deriving from it, 

' The water was by far more dark than purple ; 
And we, in company of the dusky ripples, 
Went in and down along a path unshapen. 105 : 

That dismal brooklet, when it hath descended 
Unto the foot of the gray slopes malignant, 



Canto VII] INFERNO 47 

Forms a morass, which Styx is designated. 108 

And I, who was intent upon observing, 

Saw people all bemired within that marish, 

All of them naked and with look of suffering. 1 1 1 
These smote, and not with hand alone, each other. 

But with the head, and with the feet and 
body, 

Mangling each other with their teeth in piece- 
meal. 1 1 4 
The gentle master said : '* Now see before thee, 

My son, the souls of those whom anger van- 
quished. 

And I would have thee too believe for certain, 1 1 7 
The water hath a folk beneath it, sighing, 

Who make this water bubble at the surface. 

As thine eye tells thee, wheresoe'er it circles. 1 20 
Fixed in the slime they say : ' Sad were we ever 

In the sweet air that by the sun is gladdened. 

Bearing a sullen fume within our bosoms : 123 
Now here in the black slime we nurse our sad- 
ness.* 

This is the hymn they gurgle in their throttle, 

Because with words entire they cannot say it." 1 26 
Thus made we circuit of the filthy channel, 

A great arc's space *twixt the dry bank and 
marish. 

With eyes to each mud-swallower directed. 129 

And, at the last, we came beneath a tower. 



CANTO VIII 

I SAY, proceeding, that a good deal sooner 
Than we were at the foot of the high tower, 
Our eyes went on their way up to the summit, 3 

By reason of two small flames we saw there 
starting. 
And of another, giving answering signal, 
So far away that scarce the eye could grasp 

it. 6 

And turning to the sea of all discernment 

I said : " This sign, what saith it, and what 

answers 
That other fire, and who are those who make 

it ? " . 9 

And he to me : *' Over the filthy waters 

Already canst perceive him who is looked for, 
Unless the fume of the morass doth hide 

him/* 1 2 

Never did bowstring shoot from it an arrow. 
To speed upon its course through air, so 

nimble 
As I beheld a tiny little vessel 1 5 

Come through the water toward us at that in- 
stant, 

48 



[ 



Canto VIII] INFERNO 49 

Under the guidance of a single boatman, 
Who cried aloud : '* Fell soul, art now come 

hither?" 18 

Phlegyas, Phlegyas, thou criest idly. 

For once : " my lord replied, '^ thou shalt not 

have us 
Longer than only while we pass the puddle." 2 1 
Like one who listens to a great deception 

That has been put on him, and then resents 

it, 
Phlegyas became in his concentred anger. 24 

My leader first into the boat descended, 

And then close after him he made me enter. 
Only when I was in it seemed it laden. 27 

Soon as my guide and I were in the wherry. 
Upon its way the ancient prow goes, cutting 
The water deeper than 'tis wont with others. 30 
While we were running o'er the lifeless channel. 
One full of mud planted himself before me, 
And said : '' Who art thou who dost come 

so early ? " 33 

And I to him : *' Although I come, I stay not : 
But who art thou, who hast made thyself so 
ugly ? " 
*' Thou seest that I am one who weeps," he 

answered. 36 

And I to him : *' With weeping and with sorrow, 
Remain thou by thyself, accursed spirit : 



50 DANTE [Canto VIII 

I know thee well, albeit thou art all filthy." 39 

Then with his hands he stretched unto the 
wherry : 
Wherefore my master, wary, thrust him 

backward, 
Saying : ''Go with the other dogs out 

yonder/' 42 

Then with his arms about my neck he clasped me, 
And kissed my face, and said : " O ! soul dis- 
dainful, 
. Blessed is she of women who conceived thee. 45 
I' the world he was a person proud and haughty ; 
His memory hath no gentle deed's adorning ; 
Therefore his shade is here infuriated. 48 

How many count themselves up there great 
princes, 
Who here like hogs in mire shall have their 

station. 
Leaving behind them horrible reproaches ! *' $1 

And I : " Dear master, I were fain exceeding 
To see him take a dip into these swillings. 
Before we from the lake have made our 

issue.*' 54 

And he to me : *' Or e*er the shore allows thee 
To see it, thou shalt fully be contented : 
Of such desire 'tis fit thou have enjoyment." 57 
And, after that a httle, such an onslaught 
I saw the miry people make upon him, 



Canto VIII] INFERNO 51 

That God I still do praise, and thank him for it. 60 
They all cried out : ** Have at Filippo Argenti ! " 
At that the Florentine fantastic spirit 
Turned round, into himself his teeth to fasten. 63 
There left we him : so more of him I tell not. 
But in my ears a sound of dolour smote me ; 
Whence I, intent, in front unbar my eyelids. 66 
The kindly master said : ** E'en now the city 
That hath the name of * Dis,' my son, draws 

near us, 
With solemn townsmen, with great troops of 

people.'* 69 

And I : '* Dear master, therewithin already 
Its mosques discern I plainly in the valley, — 
Vermilion, even so as they had issued 72 

From fire." And he to me : ** The fire eternal 
That fires them from within makes them glow 

ruddy. 
As in this lower hell thou dost perceive 

them." 75 

Now we arrived within the deep-sunk ditches 
Which compass round that land past conso- 
lation. 
The walls appeared to me as though of iron. 78 
Not without making first a lengthy circuit. 

We reached a place whereat the pilot loudly 
Called out to us : ** Go forth ! here is the 

entry." 81 



52 DANTE [Canto VIII 

Above the gates I saw more than a thousand. 
Rained from the heavens above, who pas- 
sionately 
Were saying : " Who is this, that without 

dying 84 

Athwart the realm of the dead folk is faring ? " 
And my sage master thereupon made signal 
Of wishing to have word with them in secret. 87 
Then they suppressed a httle their great anger, 
And said : " Come thou alone ; and go the 

other 
His way, who through this realm so rashly 

entered : 90 

Alone let him return the path of folly : 

Try if he can ; since that thou here must tarry, 
Who hast disclosed to him so dark a highway." 93 
Consider, reader, if I was disheartened 

When those accursed words I heard resound- 
ing ; 
For never did I think to come back hither. 96 

" O my dear leader, who times more than seven 
Hast given me back security, and ta'en me 
From peril eminent that stood against me, 99 

Leave me not thus undone,'* I said, '* behind 
thee : 
And, if to pass on further is denied As, 
Quick let us find again our tracks together.** 102 
And he, that lord who thitherto had brought me, 



Canto VIII] INFERNO 53 

Said to me : " Feax thou not, for none can stay 

us 
Upon our passage : from such source 'tis 

granted. 105 

But wait me here, and let thy weary spirit 
Be comforted with happy hope and nourished : 
For in the lower world I will not leave thee." 108 
So the sweet father goes his way, forsaking 
Me there, and I remain in peradventure : 
For Yes and No within my head are warring. 1 1 1 
I could not hear what was to them propounded ; 
But not for long did he there tarry with them ; 
For they raced all, pellmell, back to their 

fortress. 114 

They closed the portals, those our adversaries, 
In my lord's face ; who stayed outside the city, 
And turned him back to me with measured 

paces. 117 

His eyes upon the ground he had, and eyebrows 
Shorn of all valiance, and with sighs was 
saying : 
** Who hath denied to me the homes of dolour ?" 1 20 
And to me said : *' Thou, for that I am angered. 
Be not dismayed : for I shall win the essay, 
Whoso for the defence within may gather. 123 

Not new is this their insolence outrageous ; 
For they once used it at a gate less secret, 
Which to this day is found without a fastening. 1 2 6 



54 DANTE [Canto VIII 

Above that gate the scroll of death thou sawest : 
E'en now, this side of it, one is descending 
.The steep, escortless passing through the 

circles, 129 

Such that by him their city shall be opened/' 



CANTO IX 

The hue which cowardice had painted on me 
Outwardly, when I saw my guide retreating, 
The sooner checked his own, before unwonted. 3 
He stopped attentive, Uke a man who Hstens ; 
Because not very far the eye could take him 
Through the black air and through the fre- 
quent vapour. 6 
** Yet it will be our part to win the battle — *' 

Began he : ''If not — One there was who 

offered — 
Oh ! how it irks to wait the other's coming.'* 9 
I took good notice in what way he covered 

His first beginning with the rest that followed, 
Which was in words quite different from the 

former : 1 2 

But fear his utterance gave me, notwithstanding. 
Because I drew the word he left unfinished. 
Perhaps, to a worse sense than he intended. 1 5 

" Into this depth of the sad scouring vessel 

Doth any of the first stage come down ever. 
Who hath the blighted hope alone for pen- 
ance ? '* 18 
This question asked I, and he : ** Very seldom 

55 



56 DANTE [Canto IX 

Doth it occur," replied to me, *' that any 

Of us may make the journey I am going. 21 

True is it that I came before down hither. 

Brought by the magic of that fell Erichtho, 

Who summoned back the shades into their 

bodies. 24 

From me my flesh was but short while denuded, 

When within yonder wall she made me enter 

To bring a spirit up from Judas' circle. 27 

That is the lowest place of all, and darkest. 

And furthest from the heaven that makes all 
motion. 

I know the road well : therefore rest securely. 30 
This marsh, which doth exhale a stench so mighty, 

Begirdeth round about the city doleful. 

Where now we cannot enter without anger." n 
And more he said, but I cannot recall it. 

Because my eyes had drawn me altogether 

Towards the lofty tower with glowing summit, 3 6 
Where sudden, at one instant, had uprisen 

Three hellish Furies, dyed with hue of san- 
guine, 

That had a woman's members and demeanour, 39 
And were with hydras of bright green begirded. 

Small serpents and horned snakes they had 
for tresses, 

Wherewith their fearsome temples were en- 
circled. 42 



Cakto IX] INFERNO 57 

And he, who recognised quite well the hand- 
maids 
Of the queen of everlasting lamentation, 
** Mark closely,'* said to me, " each fierce Erinys : 45 
This is Megaera on the lef thand comer ; 
She who is weeping on the right Alecto ; 
Tisiphone between." With that he ended. 48 

Each with her nails was rending her own bosom : 
They smote themselves, and cried aloud so 

shrilly 
That I, mistrusting, drew beside the poet. 5 1 

' Bring up Medusa ! enamel we will make him,'* 
They all were saying, gazing down intently, 
** 111 did we not to avenge the assault of Theseus." 54 
' Turn thyself round, and keep enclosed thy 
vision : 
For, if the Gorgon show, and thou behold it. 
No chance e*er to return above were left us." 57 
Thus said the master, and around he turned me. 
Himself ; nor to my hands so much he trusted 
That with his own he did not also clasp me. 60 

O ye who have your understanding healthy, 
Note carefully the doctrine that is hidden 
Under the veil of these mysterious verses. 63 

And now was coming o'er the turbid billows 
A noise the sound whereof was full of terror. 
Whereat the banks on either side were 

trembling ; 66 



58 DANTE [Canto IX 

Not elsewise made than as of wind proceeding 
Impetuous from heats in opposition, 
That strikes the forest, and with no abate- 
ment 69 
Breaks off the boughs, and lays them low, and 
scatters : 
With cloud of dust in front it goes exulting, 
And the wild beasts it puts to flight and 

shepherds. 72 

My eyes he loosed, and said : ** Thy nerve of vision 
Direct now over yonder foam of ages. 
In that part where that fume is most offen- 
sive/' 75 
As frogs before their enemy the serpent 

Go scuttling through the water all together, 
Till every one is stooked upon the margin, 78 

So saw I ruined souls more than a thousand 
Fleeing before the face of one who forded 
The Styx at steady pace with soles unwetted. 8 1 
He from his countenance brushed that heavy 
vapour. 
Putting his left hand forth before him often ; 
And only of that annoyance seemed he 

weary. 84 

Well I discerned that he was sent from heaven ; 
And to the master I turned, and he made 

signal 
That quiet I should stand, and bow before him. 87 



Canto IX] INFERNO 59 

Ah, how he seemed to me to be disdainful ! 
He came unto the gate, and set it open 
With a small wand, for it made no resistance. 90 

' O despicable folk, exiled from heaven : ** 
Thus he began upon the dreadful threshold : 
*' Whence springs in you this insolence out- 
rageous ? 93 

Wherefore against that will make ye resistance 
Whose final purpose never can be shortened, 
And which hath oftentimes increased your 

dolour ? 96 

What boots against the destinies to buffet ? 
Your Cerberus, if you remember rightly. 
Thereby his chin and throat still carries 

hairless.'* 99 

Then he turned back along the filthy highway, 
And said no word to us, but put on semblance 
Of one whom other care constrains and vexes 102 

Than that concerning him who is before him. 
And we towards the city moved our footsteps, 
Confident following the words of blessing. 105 

Therein we entered with no need of warfare : 
And I, who had desire to mark and study 
The sort of things that such a hold encloses, 108 

When I was in, cast my eyes round about me. 
And saw on every hand a spreading champaign, 
Full filled with dolour and accursed torment. 11 1 

Like as at Aries, where Rhodanus is stagnant. 



6o DANTE [Canto IX 

Like as at Pola, close by Gulf Quamaro, 
Which shuts in Italy and bathes its borders, 1 1 4 
The sepulchres make all the place uneven, 
In such wise here on every side they made it, 
Save that the fashion of them was more 

bitter: 117 

For flames within the tombs themselves were 
scattered, 
Whereby they all were so intensely glowing 
That no art asketh more for melting iron. 1 20 

All of the covers of them were uplifted. 

And forth there issued such sore lamentations 
As well seemed those of wretched ones in 

suffering. 123 

And I : " What sort of folk are these, dear 
master, 
Who, being buried all within those coffers, 
Make known their presence with the sighs of 

dolour?'* 126 

And he to me : " Here are the heretic leaders. 
And all their followers of each sect, and very 
Much more than thou would'st think the 

tombs are laden. 129 

Like here with like hath burial together : 

And more or less the monuments are heated." 
And, after to the right hand he had turned him, 1 32 
We passed *twixt the high buttresses and tor- 
ments. 



CANTO X 

Now goes his way along a secret pathway 
Between the torments and the city rampart 
My master ; and I follow at his shoulders. 3 

'* Virtue supreme, who through these wicked circles 
Dost make me turn," began I, " at thy 

pleasure, 
Speak thou to me, and satisfy my longings : 6 

The folk that in the sepulchres are Ijang, 

Could they be seen ? Already all the covers 
Are raised, and there is none that keepeth 

sentry." 9 

And he to me : " All will be locked securely, 
When from Jehoshaphat they come back hither. 
With their own bodies they have left up 

yonder. 1 2 

• Within this quarter have their cemetery 
Along with Epicurus hisl disciples. 
Who make the soul and body dead together. 1 5 
So of the question that of me thou askest 

Herewithin thou shalt soon have satisfaction, 
And of the longing, too, whereof thou art 

silent." 18 

And I : ** Dear leader mine, I keep not hidden 

6z 



62 



DANTE 



[Canto X 



My heart from thee, except to speak more 

briefly : 
To that thou hast, not now alone, disposed 

me," 31 

*' Tuscan, who through the city of fire art going 
Thy way alive, speaking with such refinement. 
Be it thy pleasure in this place to tarry. 24 

Thy very speech doth manifestly prove thee 
A native bom of that most noble country 
To which I, peradventure, was too troublous." 27 
Quite unexpectedly this sound had issued 

From one o' the coffers. Thereupon I drew 

me, i 

Fearing, a little closer to my leader, 30 

And he tome : " Turn round : what art thou 
doing ? 
See Farinata yonder, standing upright : 
From the waist up entirely thou wilt see him." 5 3 
I had my eyes on his set fast already ; 

And he was throwing back his breast and 

forehead, 
As though he hell in great despite accounted. 36 
The valiant hands and ready of my leader 
Thrust me towards him through the burial 

places, 
Saying : " Now let thy words be fitly chosen/' 39 
When 1 the foot of his own tomb had come to, 
He stared at me awhile, and then he asked me : 



Canto X] INFERNO 63 

'* Who were thy forefathers ? *' as if disdainful. 42 
I, who was very eager to obey him, 

Hid from him naught, but all to him I opened : 
Whereat he slightly lifted up his eyebrows, 45 

Then said : " To me they cruelly were adverse, 
And to my ancestors, and to my party ; 
So that two several times did I disperse them." 4 8 
*' Though hunted, they came back from every 
quarter,** 
I answered him, '* both one time and the other : 
But of that art your side were never masters." 5 1 
Then rose into the scope of view, uncovered 
Down to the chin, a shade beside that other : 
I think that on his knees he was supported. 54 

He stared hard round about me, as if a fancy 
He had to see if any one was with me. 
But, after his suspense was quite extinguished, 5 7 
Weeping he said : *' If through this sightless 
prison 
By loftiness of genius thou art going. 
Where is my son ? Why is he not beside thee ? " 60 
And I to him : *' I come not self -directed : 
He who is waiting there through here doth 

lead me ; 
Whom, haply, in disdain your Guido ac- 
counted." 63 
His words, and the fit manner of his penance. 
Had read to me the name of him already. 



64 



DANTE 



[Canto X 



And therefore was my answer made so fully. 66 
Suddenly risen up, he cried : '* How said'st thou ? 
That he ' accounted * ? Is he not still living ? 
Doth the sweet Ught not beat upon his eye- 
lids ? *' 69 
When he perceived some little hesitation 
That I was showing prior to my answer^ 
He fell supine, and showed outside no longer. 72 
But the other high-souled one, at whose ap- 
pointing 
1 had made halt, changed not a whit his 

aspect, 
Nor did he move his neck, nor bend his body. 75 
* And if '*^with his first utterance proceeding — 
"If they/' he said, *' have learned that art 
so badly, 
More than this bed itself doth that torment 

me ; 78 

But less than fifty times shall be relighted 
That lady's face who here is sovran ruler, 
When thou shalt know the load that art im- 
poses. 8 1 
And, so may'st thou to the sweet world have 
regress, 
Tell me why is that people so relentless 
Against my side in all its ordinances/' S4 
And I to him : " The carnage and great slaughter 
That made the colour of the Arbia sanguine 



Canto X] INFERNO 65 

Hath caused such orisons within our temple." 87 
After he, sighing deep, his head had shaken, 
'* There was I not alone," he said, ** nor, surely, 
Without good cause would I have moved with 

th' others ; 90 

But there was I alone, where the proposal 
To do away with Florence was accepted 
By all, the one who was her open champion." 93 
* * Ah ! so may sometime rest your seed in quiet," 
I begged of him, " for me that knot unfasten, 
Which here hath quite entangled my opinion. 96 
It seems that you can see, if I hear rightly. 
Beforehand what the course of time brings 

with it, 
And take another course as to the present." 99 

** We see, like one who has defective vision. 

The things,' he said, '* which are at greater 

distance. 
So much the Guide Supreme still beams upon 

us. 102 

When they draw near, or are, our understanding 
Is all in vain ; and, if no other brings it, 
Nothing we know about your human matters : 105 
Therefore can'st comprehend that altogether 
Dead will oiu" knowledge be after that moment 
When shall be shut the portal of the future." 108 
With that, as feeling for my fault compunction, 
I said : *' Then you will tell him fallen yonder 



66 



DANTE 



[Canto X 



His son is still in converse with the living. 1 1 1 

And, if before the answer I was silent, 

I did so, let him know, because my thinking 
Was still in the mistake whence you have 

loosed me." 114 

My master was recalling me already ; 

Wherefore more instantly I prayed the spirit 
To tell me who it was that there was with him. 117 
He said to me : '* Beside more than a thousand 
I lie : within here is the Second Frederic ; 
The Cardinal also : of the rest I am silent : *' 120 
Then hid himself. And I towards the ancient 
Poet turned back my steps, intently thinking 
Upon that speech which seemed to me un- 
friendly. 12 J 
He started on ; and then, thus going forward, 
He said to me : " Why art thou so bewildered ?^' 
And to his quest I gave him satisfaction. 1 26 
*' See that thy mind hold fast what thou hast 
hearkened 
Against thyself r" thus did the sage command 

me: 
' Now give attention here :** and raised his 

finger: 129 

*' When thou shalt be before the sweet effulgence 
Of her to whose fair eye al! things are open, 
From her shalt know concerning thy life's 

journey." 132 



Canto X] INFERNO 67 

Then to the left hand soon he turned his foot- 
steps. 
We left the wall, and went towards the centre, 
Along a path that strikes into a valley 135 

That made its stench even up there unpleasant. 



CANTO XI 

Upon a high embankment's extreme limit, 
Made by great shattered rocks disposed in 

circle, 
We came upon a crueller collection : 3 

And there impelled by the exceeding horror 
Of the stench that the profound abyss dis- 
charges, 
We drew ourselves up close behind a cover 6 

Of a great tomb, whereon I saw a writing 
That said : *' Pope Anastasius here I prison, 
Him whom Photinus from the straight way 

tempted." 9 

" Our going down must needs be now retarded. 
That first the sense may use itself a little 
To the dismal blast : and then will be no 

heeding:" 12 

The Master thus : and I : '* Some compensa- 
tion," 
Said to him, " find, so that not wholly wasted 
The time may pass." And he : '* Lo, that I 

ponder. 1 5 

My son, there are within these rocks' enclosure," 
Began he then to say, " three lesser circles, 

68 



Canto XI] INFERNO 69 

Falling from step to step, like those thou art 

leaving : 1 8 

They all are brimful of accursed spirits. 

But, that henceforth sight only may suffice 

thee. 
Learn in what way they are constrained and 

wherefore. 2 1 

All wickedness that lays up hate in heaven 
Injustice hath for end, and such end alway, 
Either by force or fraud, afflicts another : 24 

But, seeing that fraud is man's peculiar evil, 
More it displeases God : therefore are lowest 
The fraudulent, and greater woe assails them. 27 
Wholly of the violent is the first circle : 

But, seeing that force is done unto three 

objects, 
It in three Rounds is ordered and constructed. 30 
To God, and to one's self, and to one's neighbour. 
Force may be done — I mean to things and 

persons, 
As thoii shalt hear with argument explicit. 33 

Death wrought by force and grievous wounds 
are given 
Unto one's neighbour ; and unto his having 
Destruction, fire, and ruinous exactions : 36 

Whence homicides, and whoso smites unfairly, 
Plunderers, men of prey — all these in torment 



70 



DANTE 



[Canto XI 



Ke€ps the first Round, in divers troops 
divided. 

Man may upon himself and his possessions 
Lay violent hand : and therefore in the second 
Round must repent without the hope of profit 

Whoso deprives himself of your world's being, 
Or wastes at play and squanders his resources, 
And there finds weeping where he should be 
joyinl. 

Force may be done, as it regards the Godhead. 
By inwardly denying, and blaspheming. 
And by contemning nature and its bounty. 

And therefore doth the smallest Round make imprint 
Of its own seal on Sodom and on Cahors, 
And whoso, God contemning, inly whispers. 

Fraud, wherewithal is bitten every conscience, 
A man may use regarding one who trusts him. 
Or one who has no store of trust to deal with. 

This latter way, as it would seem, slays only 
The tie of love that nature itself fashions ; 
Whence make their nest within the second 
circle 

Hypocrisy, smooth speeches, and bewitchment, 
Forgery, thieving, and the sin of Simon, 
Panders, and jobbers, and the like offscouring. 

By the other way both is that love forgotten 
Which nature makes, and that which then is 
added, 



39 



42 



45 



48 



SI 



S4 



57 



60 



Canto XI] INFERNO 71 

From which the trust especial is created. 63 

Whence in the smallest circle, where the centre 
Is of the universe, where Dis is seated, 
Whoso betrayeth is consumed for ever." 66 

And I : *' Thy argument quite plain, dear 
master. 
Proceeds so far, and doth quite well distinguish 
This gulf, and all the people that possess it : 69 
But tell me — those within the slimy marish. 
Those the wind beareth, those the rain doth 

beat on. 
And those who with such bitter tongues en- 
counter, 7 2 
Why are they not within the ruddy city 

In punishment, if God hath them in anger ? 
And, if he hath not, why is such plight assigned 

them?" 75 

And he to me : ** Why is thy wit thus raving 
So far astray from what it is accustomed ?* 
Or, haply, elsewhere is thy mind regarding ? 78 

Dost thou not call those words to thy remem- 
brance. 
Wherein thy Ethic treats with so much 

fullness 
The dispositions three that heaven will none 

of; 81 

Incontinence, and viciousness, and senseless 
Brutishness ; and how less offends the Godhead 



72 



DANTE 



[Canto XI 



Incontinence, and how less blame it borrows ? 84 

If thou wilt well give heed to this opinion, 

And bring unto thy mind who are those others, 
Who higher, outside these walls, endure their 

penance, 87 

Well wilt thoa see why they are from these felons 
Set separate, and why less fiercely angered 
Justice divine doth smite them with its 

hammer/' 90 

Oh ! sun, who makest whole all troubled vision. 
Thou dost content me so when thou resolvest 
That doubt is joy to me, no less than know- 
ledge, 95 

Again retrace/' I said, '* thy steps a little 
To where thou say^st that usury is offensive 
To Divine goodness, and the knot unravel/' 96 

Philosophy, to whoso understands it, 

Doth note/' he said, '* not in one chapter only, 
How nature takes her course from the ex- 
ample 99 

Of the intellect divine, and of its method. 

And, if thou notest w^ell the master's Physic, 
There thou wilt find, not after many pages, roz 

That your own art, so far as it is able, 

Follows her, as his master doth the learner ; 

So that your art to God is as a grandchild, 105 

From these two, if thou bring' st to recollection 
Genesis at its opening, it must needs be 



Canto XI] INFERNO 73 

That folk do take their Hving and make 

progress. 108 

And, since the usurer keeps another pathway, 
Nature, both for herself and for her daughter, 
Contemns he, since his hope elsewhere he 

places. 1 1 1 

But follow me, for now I would be going : 
For over the horizon glide the Fishes, 
And o'er the North-west all the Wain is lying, 1 1 4 

And yonder far must we climb down the ledges." 



CANTO XII 

The place we came on to descend the margin 
Was alpine, and, from what was there, such also 
That any sight thereof would be repellent : 3 

As is that downfall, which Adigfe, smiting, 
Wrought on the flank on hither side of Trenta, 
Either from earthquake or unsure f oimdation — 6 

For from the mountain summit, whence it 
started, 
Down to the plain the rock is so disrupted 
That it would give sure path to any above it — 9 

Such of that rugged chasm was the descending : 
And right upon the edge o' the broken basin 
The infamy of Crete outstretched was lying, 1 2 

Which was conceived in the fictitious heifer. 
And he gan bite himself, when as he saw us, 
Even as a man whom wrath consumeth inly. 1 5 

My leader sage cried out towards him : *' Haply 
Thou thinkest that here comes the Duke of 

Athens, 
Who in the world above brought death to 

meet thee. 18 

Take thyself off, thou beast, for this one comes 
not 

74 



Canto XII] INFERNO 75 

Well tutored and instructed by thy sister, 
But goes his way your penances to witness." 21 
As is yon bull that but then breaks his tether 
When he already hath received the death- 
blow — 
Nor can he run, but to and fro he plunges — 24 
I saw the Minotaur do in like fashion. 

And he cried, wary : '* Run unto the passage ; 
Tis well to get thee down while he is 

frenzied." 27 

Thus did we take our way down through the 
unlading 
Of those great stones, which were in frequent 

movement 
Under my feet from the unwonted burden. 30 

I fared on, musing : and he said : " Thou 
musest 
Haply upon this downfall which is guarded 
By yonder bestial wrath I now extinguished. 33 
Now I would have thee know that, when I hither 
Into hell's depths that other time descended. 
This mass of rock was not yet fallen in ruin. 36 
But certainly, if I can well distinguish, 

A short while ere He came, who the great 

booty 
Rescued from Dis for the supernal circle, 39 

On every side the deep and loathsome valley 
So quaked I thought the universe was thrilling 



76 DANTE [Canto XII 

With love, whereby, as there are some who 

fancy, 42 

The world has oftentimes been turned to chaos. 
And this primeval rock just at that moment 
Here and elsewhere made such an overturning. 45 

But fix thine eyes below thee : for the river 
Of blood is drawing near, wherein is seething 
Whoso by violence doth hurt to others." 48 

Oh, blind cupidity ! Oh, senseless anger, 
Which in the brief life spurs us on so hotly. 
And in the eternal then so sadly dips us ! 51 

I saw a ditch, bent in an arc and ample. 
And so that it embraces all the champaign. 
According well with what my escort told me. 54 

And 'twixt the foot o' the bank and it were 
running 
Centaurs in single file, equipped with arrows, 
As they were wont i' the world to go a-hunting. 5 7 

Seeing us coming down, every one halted ; 
And from the troop three of them made a 

sally. 
With bows and darts they had already chosen. 60 

And from afar one cried : ** Unto what torment 
Come ye who are descending thus the hillside ? 
Speak where ye are : if not, I shoot the 

arrow." 63 

My master said : ** Ourselves will give the 
answer 



Canto XII] INFERNO 77 

To Chiron over yonder at close quarters : 
To thine own grief thy will was aye so hasty/' 66 
Then touched he me, and said : ** That one is 
Nessus, 
Who died for sake of the fair Deianira, 
And vengeance for himself himself exacted. 69 

And he between, who on his breast is gazing, 
Is the great Chiron, he who nursed Achilles ; 
Pholus, who was so full of wrath, the other. 72 

Around the ditch they go, thousand by thousand, 
Aiming their shafts at every soul emerging 
More from the blood than what his fault allots 

him." 7 5 

We made approach unto those nimble monsters : 
Chiron an arrow took, and with the notching 
Thereof he trimmed his beard behind the 

jawbones. 78 

When his great mouth he had to sight uncovered, 
He said to his companions : *' Have you 

noticed 
That he who is behind moves what he touches ? 8 1 
The feet of dead men are not wont to do so." 
And my good guide, who to his breast already 
Was come, where the two natures are con- 
sorted, 84 
Replied : ''He lives indeed : and, solitary 
Thus, 'tis my part to show him the dark 
valley : 



78 



DANTE 



[Canto XII 



Necessity doth bring him here, not pastime. 

One came straight down from singing Alleluia, 
Who unto as committed this new office : 
No thievish soul am I, nor he a robber. 

But by that selfsame virtue, by whose power 
I move my steps along so wild a highway, 
Give to us one of thine, in whose close keeping 

To go, and who may point us out the fording. 
And who may carry him upon his crupper ; 7^ 
For he is not a spirit to walk on vapour/' 

Upon his right breast wheeling, Chiron turned 
him, 
And said to Nessus : *' Back, and so conduct 

them ; 
And clear the way, if other troop doth meet 
you." 

We started on, we and our trusty escort, 
Along the shore of that vermilion boiling. 
Wherein the boiled were making shrieks of 
anguish. 

I saw folk underneath, up to the eyebrow ; 
And the great Centaur said : '* Those there are 

tyrants. 
Who dealt in blood and in the fruits of rapine : 

There are bemoaned the pitiless despoilings : 
Fierce Dionysius, who years of dolour 
Caused Sicily, is there, and Alexander : 

And yonder broWj that has the hair so swarthy, 



8; 



9 J 



96 



99 



lOZ 



los 



io3 



Canto XII] INFERNO 79 

Is Azzolin : that other, who is flaxen, 
Obizzo of Est&, who, of very surety, 1 1 1 

Up in the world was stifled by his stepson." 

Then turned I to the poet, and thus spake he : 
" Now be he first to thee, and I the second." 1 14 
A little further on the Centaur halted 
Over a folk, that, far as to the gullet. 
It seemed were from that boiling stream 

emerging. 1 1 7 

A shade he showed us in a comer, lonely, 

Sa5dng : "He yonder smote within God's 

bosom 
The heart that still upon the Thames is 

cherished." 120 

Then saw I folk that clear from out the river 
Held up the head, and all the chest moreover : 
And not a few I recognised amongst them. 123 
Thus, ever more and more, receded lower 

That blood, so that the feet alone it covered : 
And there across the ditch we had our 

passage. 1 2^ 

' Exactly as thoa seest in this quarter 

The boOiiig stream, that groweth still more 

scanty," 
The Centaur said, " this I would have tbee 

credit, 12^ 

That 00 this other deeper still and deeper 
It dq» its htd^ until at last it r<^acbe» 



8o DANTE [Canto XII 

The place where tyranny must needs make 

mourning. 132 

Justice divine in yonder part is goading 

That Attila, on earth the scourge of nations, 
Pyrrhus, and Sextus, and draws out for ever 135 

The tears that it unlocketh with the boiling 
From Rinier of Cometo, and Rinier Pazzo, 
Who waged so great a war upon the high- 
ways." 138 

At that he turned him, and repassed the shallow. 



CANTO XIII 

Not yet had Nessus reached the further margin 
When we set out into a tract of woodland 
That was not marked at all by any pathway. 3 

Not verdant twigs, but of a dusky colour, 

Not lissome boughs, but full of knots and 

tangled, 
Not apples were therein, but thorns with 

poison. 6 

Brambles so dense have not, nor yet so bristly. 
Those savage animals that hold in hatred 
The well-tilled fields 'twixt Cecina and Cor- 

neto. 9 

Therewithin make their nests the loathsome 
Harpies, 
Who from the Strophades drave forth the 

Trojans 
With dismal tidings of the harm to follow. 1 2 

Wide wings they have, and necks and faces 
human, 
And feet with claws, and the broad belly 

feathered : 
On the strange trees they utter sounds of 

mourning. 1 5 

81 G 



82 



DANTE 



[Canto XIII 



And the good Master : " Ere thou enter further, 
Know thou that in the second Round thou 

art faring," 
Began to say to me, " and wilt continue, i8 

Until thou come upon the dreadful sand -plain. 
Therefore take careful heed, so shalt thou 

witness 
Things that would take all faith from my dis- 
coursing/' 21 
I, on all sides, was ware of drone of wailings^ 
And did not see a person who mif^ht make it j 
Wherefore, bewildered utterly, I halted. 
I think that he had thought that I was thinking 
That 'mongst those trunks such sound of 

Toices issued 
From folk who on account of us were hiding. 
Therefore the Master said : "If thou wilt only 
Break some small twig from any of these 

bushes, 
The thoughts thou hast will prove themselves 

quite cripple." 30 

With that I put my hand a little forward, 

And gathered from a great blackthorn a 

branchlet : 
And its stem cried aloud : '* Why dost thou 

rend me ? " 33 

When it became embrowned with blood that 
trickled, 



24 



2; 



Canto XIII] INFERNO 83 

It 'gan again to cry : ** Why dost thou tear me ? 
Hast thou not any spirit at all of pity ? 36 

Men were we once, but now are turned to 
brambles : 
Thy hand might very well have been more 

kindly, 
If we had only been the souls of serpents.'* 39 

As out of a green branch which may be burning 
At one end, and is dripping at the other, 
And hisses with the wind that is escaping, 42 

So from the broken spUnter forth there issued 
Together words and blood : whence I the 

twig-top 
Let fall, and stood as stands a man affrighted. 45 
If he could have believed in the first instance. 
Thou wounded soul," my leader sage made 
answer, 
" What he hath seen, with aid but of my verses, 48 
He would not have outstretched his hand upon 
thee. 
But the thing past belief made me induce him 
To do a deed that on myself weighs heavy. 5 1 

But tell him who thou wert, so that, instead of 
Any amends, he thy renown may freshen 
r the world above, where to return is given 

him." 54 

And the stem : '* With soft speech dost so 
entice me, 



84 



DANTE 



[Canto XIII 



I cannot hold my p^ace ; nor let it vex you 

That I a little am snared in conversation. 57 

He am I who of both the keys was keeper 
Of Frederic's breast, and who so gently 

turned them. 
In locking and unlocking, that I banished, 60 

So to say, all men from his inmost connseL 
Fealty I bore to my illnstrious office, 
So much that I thereby lost sleep and vigour. 6;^ 

The courtezan who from the lodge of C5&sar 
Never diverted yet her eyes of wanton^ — 
That common death, and vice of courtly 

dwellings^ — 66 

Inflamed the minds of every one against me ; 
And the inflamed ones so inflamed Augustus 
That my glad honours turned to dismal 

sorrows. 69 

My mind, incited by disdainful savour, 
And thinking to escape disdain by dying, 
Against my just self made me do injustice. 72 

By the new roots of this poor piece of timber 
I never broke my fealty — I swear it — 
Unto my lord, so worthy of all honour. 75 

If either one of you the world re\dsits. 

Let him sustain my memory, which prostrate 
Stili lies beneath the blow that envy gave it." 78 

Awhile he waited ; then : "' Since he is silent/' 
The poet said to me, " lose not the occasion. 



Canto XIII] INFERNO 85 

But speak, and ask of him, if more doth 

please thee." 8 1 

Whence I to him : " Nay, do thou ask him 
further 
Of what thou think' st would give me satis- 
faction : 
For I could not : such pity doth oppress me." 84 
Therefore he gan again : '' So may this mortal 
Do for thee freely what thy speech doth pray 

him. 
Spirit imprisoned, still be it thy pleasure 87 

To tell us how the soul is held in bondage 

Within these knots, and tell us, if thou 

art able, 
If any from such limbs is ever loosened." 90 

Then the stem breathed a mighty breath, and, 
after, 
That wind was turned into such voice as 

follows : 
'' Briefly to you an answer shall be given : 93 

When the inhuman soul departeth, leaving 
The body whence it plucked itself asunder, 
Minos commits it to the seventh gullet : 96 

It falls i' the wood : no part for it is chosen : 
But in what place soever fortune shoots it. 
There doth it germinate, like seed of barley : 99 
It rises up in sprout and in wild sapling : 
The Harpies, feeding then upon its leafage, 



se 



DANTE 



[Canto XIII 



Bring sorrow, and an outlet to the sorrow. 
We for our spoils shall come, just as the others ; 
Yet may not any be therewith revested : 
For 'tis not just to have what is discarded. 
Here shall we drag them, and all through the 
mournful 
Wood will the bodies of us be appended, 
Each on the thornbnsh of the shade it bur- 
dened'^ 
We still were on the stem intently waiting, 
Thinking that something more it wished to 

tell us, 
When by a noise we unawares were taken, 
Even in such wise as one who is aware of 

The boar and hunt coming where he is posted, 
Who hears the beasts and crashing of the 
branches. 
And lo I upon the left-hand side a couple. 

Naked and scratched, fleeing so vehemently 
They broke the wood's entanglements asunder, 
The foremost one : *' Now hasten 1 Death ! 
Oh, hasten I *' 
The other one, whose pace appeared too lag- 
gard, 
Was crying out : '' Oh ! Lano, not so clever 
Thy legs were at the joustings of the Toppo," 
And then he, for perchance his breath was 
faiBng, 



102 



los 



loS 



114 



117 



120 



Canto XIII] INFERNO 87 

A group made of himself and of a briar. 123 

In rear of them the wood was full of she-dogs, 
All black, and ravenous, and swiftly running, 
Like greyhounds that have issued from their 

leashes. 126 

On that one who had crouched their teeth they 
fastened. 
And him they rended, bit by bit, in pieces ; 
Then carried they away those smarting 

members. 129 

Then straightway by the hand my escort took 
me. 
And led me to the briar, which was wailing 
Through every bleeding rupture, to no pur- 
pose. 132 
** Oh ! Jacomo,'* it said, ** of Saint Andrea, 

To make a screen of me what did it boot thee ? 
What fault have I, in all thy guilty lifetime ? '* 135 
When he was standing over it, the Master 

Said : ** Who wast thou, who now, through 

points so many, 
A dolorous discourse with blood art sighing ? '* 138 
And he to us : '* Oh ! souls who are come 
hither 
To witness the abominable outrage 
That hath from me my twigs thus disunited, 141 
Pray, at the foot of the sad bush collect them. 
I of that city was, which for the Baptist 



88 DANTE [Canto XIII 

Changed its first patron ; whence he, for 

that reason, 144 

Will make it ever sad with his devices. 
And, were it not that on the pass of Amo 
Unto this day remains of him some semblance, 147 

Those citizens who laid its new foundations 
On what from Attila remained of ashes 
Had undertaken all in vain their labour. 1 50 

Of my own house I made myself a gibbet.'* 



CANTO XIV 

Because the warm affection for my birthplace 
Moved me, I brought the scattered twigs 

together, 
And gave them back to him who now was 

voiceless. 3 

Thence came we to the confine, where is parted 
The third Round from the second, and where 

plainly 
Is seen a horrible device of justice. 6 

Of the new things to make clear exposition, 
I say that we arrived at a great barren. 
That from its bed doth every plant extirpate. 9 
The dolorous wood is unto it a garland 
Around, as unto that the ditch of sadness. 
Thereby we stayed our steps, skirting the 

border. 1 2 

The ground was one great plain of sand, and 
arid 
And thick, and in no other sort was fashioned 
Than that which once was pressed by feet of 

Cato. 1 5 

Vengeance of God ! In what great fear and 
trembling 

89 



90 



DANTE 



[Canto XIV 



Should'st tliou be held by each who reads the 

story 
Of that which to my eyes was manifested. 
Of flocks of naked souls I saw great number, 
Who all were very miserably weeping : 
And different law, it seemed, to them was 
given. 
One folk supine upon the ground was lying ; 
One with the body all crouched up was 

sitting ; 
Another was continually moving. 
That which was going round was more in 
number ; 
And that was less which lav before the 

toiment, 
But to the mourning had the tongue more 
loosened. 
Over the whole expanse of sand were raining 
Dilated flakes of fire in gradual downpour, 
Like as of snow on alp when wind is absent. 
As Alexander, in those torrid regions 
Of India, beheld above his cohorts 
Flames falling even to the ground unbroken ; 
Wherefore he took good heed the soil to trample 
With his battalions, seeing that the vapour 
Better was quenched while as it still was single ; 
In such wise was the eternal heat descending, 
Whereby the sand was catching fire, as tinder 



i3 



21 



24 



aj 



30 



33 



3^ 



Canto XIV] INFERNO 91 

Under the steel, for doubling of the dolour. 39 

Without a respite ever was the waving 

Of wretched hands, now hither and now 

thither. 
Shaking from off themselves the fresh fallen 

scorching. 42 

Thus I began : '' Dear master, thou who victor 
Art over all things save the sullen demons 
Who at the gate's ingoing came forth to meet 

us, 45 

Who is yon mighty one, who for the burning 
Seems not to care, and lies with scowl disdainful. 
So that the rain seems not to make him mellow ?" 48 
And he himself, who had become acquainted 
That I was questioning my guide about him, 
Cried out : '* Such am I, dead, as I was, living : 5 1 
Though Jove should tire his smith from whom he 
wrested. 
With kindled wrath, the piercing bolt of 

thunder, 
Wherewith upon that last day I was smitten, 54 
Or though he tire the others in succession 
At the black smithy down in Mongibello, 
Calling aloud, ' Good Vulcan, help me, help 

me,' 57 

Just as he once did at the fight of Phlegra, 

And shoot at me with all his might his 
arrows, 



ga 



DANTE 



[Canto XIV 



Still could he not achieve a welcome ven- 
geance," 
At that my leader spoke with so much vigour 

That I so forcible had never heard him : 
** O Capaneus, in that thine arrogancy 
Is not abated thou art more sorely punished. 
No sort of torment, saving for thy frenzy, 
Would to thy fury be perfected dolour/' 
With kinder face then turned he towards me, 

saying : 
" Of the seven kings who leaguered Thebes, he 
yonder 
Was one ; and held, and as it seems, holds ever, 
God in disdain, and seems to account him little. 
But, as I told him, his own insolences 
Are fit enough adornments for his bosom. 
Now come thou after me, and still be heedful 
That in the scalding sand thy feet thou set not, 
But keep them always close beside the wood- 
land/' 
Holding our peace we came to where there gushes 
Forth from the wood a ttny httle streamlet, 
Whereof the ruddy hue still makes me shudder. 
As from the Bulicame a brooklet issues, 

Which then the sinful women part among 

them. 
So that one through the sand was wending 
downward. 



60 



63 



66 



69 



72 



;s 



78 



Si 



Canto XIV] INFERNO 93 

The bed thereof, and both the slanting borders, 
Were turned to stone, and at the side the margins ; 
Whence I discerned that that way lay the 

passage. 84 

' 'Mongst all the other things that I have shown 
thee, 
Since that we made our entrance by the portal 
Whereof the threshold is denied to no one, 87 

Not one thing by thine eyes has been distin- 
guished 
So noteworthy as is this stream here present. 
Which o'er itself doth deaden all the flamelets." 90 
Such were the very words my leader uttered : 
Wherefore I prayed him to bestow the dainty 
For which he had bestowed on me the longing. 93 
In the mid sea there lies a wasted country," 
He straightway said, '* which hath the name 

of Creta, 
Under whose king the world was chaste afore- 
time. 96 
Therein a mountain is, which once was joyful 
With brooks and leafy boughs, and was called 

Ida. 
Now, like a thing worn out, it is deserted. 99 

Rhea once chose it for the trusty cradle 

Of her young son, and, better to conceal him 
What time he wept, she there made raise 

loud outcries. 102 



94 DANTE [Canto XIV 

Within the mount stands straight a mighty 
Ancient, 
Who holds his shoulders turned toward 

Damietta, 
And gazes upon Rome as on his mirror. los 

Of gold refined the head of him is fashioned, 
And of pure silver are his arms and bosom : 
^Thence is he brass as far as to the forking : io8 
Downward from there is all of chosen iron, 
Save that the right foot is of clay fire-hardened. 
On that he stands, more than the other, 

upright. 1 1 1 

Each part, except the gold, is broke asunder 
By a fissure, whence continual tears are 

dripping. 
That, gathered, bore a passage through that 

cavern. 1 1 4 

Their course through rocky paths attains this 
valley : 
Acheron, Styx, and Phlegethon first making, 
They go their way adown through this strait 

conduit 1 1 7 

Till they arrive where is no more descending. 
They make Cocytus ; and what-like that 

marish 
Thyself shalt see ; therefore not here the 

telling.'* 120 

And I to him : " This rivulet here present, 



Canto XIV] INFERNO 95 ' 

If it deriveth from our world in such wise, 
Why only at this brink is it apparent ? '* 123 

And he to me : '* The place is round, thou 
knowest : 
And, albeit thou art come much distance, 

bearing 
Ever to left, descending towards the bottom, 126 
Thou hast not yet turned round through all the 
circles. 
And therefore, if some new thing shew before 

us, 
It should not to thy countenance bring wonder/ 1 29 
And I again : " Master, where then are Lethfe 
And Phlegethon ? For thou of one art silent 
And say'st that of that rain is made the other/' 1 3 2 
' In all thy questions thou dost surely please me," 
He answered, *' but the ruddy water's boiling 
Should well resolve the one that thou art 

asking. 135 

Lethfe shalt see, but from this pit far distant. 
There where the souls go for their purifying. 
When fault repented of is not imputed :'* 138 

Then said : " It is high time to take departure 
Out of the woodland : see thou come behind 

me. 
The margins make a way ; they are not 

scalded, 141 

And over them all vapour is extinguished/' 



CANTO XV 



Now bears us onward one of the hard marginst 
And overhead the brooklet's fume overshadows, 
So saving from the fire the banks and water. 

Such as the Flemings, 'twixt Witsand and Bruges, 
Fearing the flood that hurls itself towards 

them, 
Make the great dike, to force the sea's retreat* 
ment, 

And as the Paduans along the Brenta, 
For surety of their villas and their castles, 
Ere Chiarentana feels the heat of summer. 

After no other pattern those were fashioned ; 
For all that not so high, nor yet so sohd. 
The master, whosoe'er he was, had made 
them. 

We were so far already from the woodland, 
That I could not have seen where it was lying, 
Though I had turned me round upon my 
footsteps. 

When with a troop of souls we made encounter, 
Coming along the bank, and each was staring 
Intent at us, as men are wont at even 

*Neath the new moon to ga^e at one another : 



12 



IS 



i8 



Canto XV] INFERNO 9>f 

And so towards us puckered they their eye-brows 
As an old tailor doth before a needle. 2 1 

I, being eyed by such a family thus-wise, 
Was recognised by one of them, who caught 

me 
By the coat-hem, and cried : " What marvel 

have we ! " 24 

And I, when he thus stretched his arm towards 
me. 
Fastened my eyes upon his fire-baked aspect, 
So that the scorched face did not prohibit 27 

His recognition to my understanding : 

And, lowering my hand unto his forehead, 

I made reply : '* Are you here, Ser Brunetto ?*' 30 

And he : ** My son, oh, let it not displease thee 
If Brunetto Latini shall a little 
Go back with thee, and let the file go forward." 3 3 

I said to him : " With all my might I pray you : 
And, if you wish that I sit down beside yp^i, 
I will, if he consents with whom I journey." 36 
*' My son," he said, " who of this flock soever 

An instant stops, a hundred years lies prostrate. 
Forbid to fan when the fire beats upon him. 39 

Therefore go on : I at thy skirts will follow. 
And afterwards I will rejoin my party, 
Which goes bemoaning its eternal losses." 42 

I did not dare step down from off the roadway 
To go upon his level, but bent downward 



9S 



DANTE 



tCANTO XV 



I held my head, as one who walks in worship. 
And he began : " What destiny or fortune 

Before thy final day brings thee down hither ? 
And who is this who points thee out the high- 
way ? " 
'* In the fair life serene, above there yonder/' 
I answered him, " I strayed within a valley, 
Before my age had yet attained its fullness : 
But y ester morn I turned my shoulders on it ; 
He appeared to me when thitherward re* 

turning : 
And now he leads me home along this path- 
way/' 
And he to me : *' If thou thy star dost follow, 
Thou canst not fail to reach the glorious 

haven, 
If I in the fair life had clear discernment. 
And, if it had not been I died so early, 

Seeing that heaven to thee was so benignant, 
Support would I have given thee for thy 
labours. 
But that ungrateful and maKgnant people, 
That in old time from Fiesole descended, 
And savour still of moujitain and of granite, 
For thy good deeds will make themselves thy 
foemen : 
And it is right : for 'mid the sour crab-apples 
That the sweet fig should fruit is unbefitting. 



45 



48 



51 



S4 



57 



^3 



66 



Canto XV] INFERNO gg 

Ancient repute i' the world doth call them 
purblind, 
Covetous folk, and envious, and haughty ; 
Take heed that clean thou wipe thee from 

their customs : 69 

Thy fortune doth reserve thee for such honour 
That one side and the other will be hungry 
For thee : but far from goat shall be the 

pasture. 72 

The beasts of Fiesole ! let them make litter 
Of their own selves, and with the stem not 

meddle. 
If any springeth still upon their dunghill, 7 5 

Wherein the holy seed of those old Romans 
May come to life again, who there continued. 
What time the nest was built of so great 

mischief." 78 

" If that my prayer had been fulfilled entirely/* 
I answered him, " you had not yet been 

banished 
Beyond the limits set for human nature : 8 1 

For in my mind is fixed, and now oppresses 
My heart, the dear and kind paternal image 
Of you, when in the world you used to teach 

me, 84 

Hourly, how man may make himself immortal. 
And while I live, in what regard I hold it 
Must ever by my tongue be manifested. 87 



xod 



bANTE 



[Canto XV 



That which you tell me of my course, I write it, 
And keep with other text for exposition 
By a lady who can make it, if 1 reach hen 

Only I wish made known to you for certain, 
Provided that my conscience do not chide me, 
1 am prepared for fortune at her pleasure. 

Not novel to my ears is such an earnest : 

Therefore let fortune set her wheel a- spinning 
As pleaseth her, and peasant wield his mat- 
tock." 

Over the right cheek thereupon my master 
Turned backward, and set fast his gaze upon 

me : 
Then said r "He listens well who notes the 
matter." 

Yet none the less I go my way coiiversing 
With Ser Brunetto ; and who are, I ask him, 
His comrades the most famous and the 
highest. 

And he to me : " Of some^ 'tis good to know them : 
O' the rest 't will be praiseworthy to be silent, 
For short would be the time for such a 
sounding. 

In sum, know thou that aH of them were clerics 
And men of letters, great and of great credit. 
All in the world by one same sin polluted. 

Priscian with yonder abject crowd is going 
His way, and Francis of Accorso also : 



90 



93 



96 



99 



102 



105 



toS 



Canto XV] INFERNO loi 

And, if to see such scabs hadst had a craving, 1 1 1 

Thou might'st see him who by the servants' 
servant 
From Arno to BacchiHon was translated ; 
And there he left behind his sin-strained sinews. 1 1 4 

More would I tell of, but my speech and coming 
•Cannot be more prolonged, because I yonder 
Espy a new smoke rising from the sand-plain : 117 

Yon come a folk with which I may not consort. 
Commended to thy care be my ' Tesoro,' 
In which I still do live, and more I ask not.*' 120 

Then turned he, and was, in seeming, of the 
runners 
Who run the green-cloth races at Verona 
Across the meadows ; and of those, in 

seeming, 123 

Was he who wins, and not the one who loses. 



CANTO XVI 



Already was I where the boom resounded 
Of water that to the next Round was falling, • 
Just like the sound that beehives make of 
humming ; 
When sudden broke away three shades together. 
Running from out a troop that there was 

passing 
Under the rain of the atrocious torment. 
They came towards us, and each one made out- 
cry : 
" Halt there, thou who hast by thy dress the 
semblance 
Of being some one of our wicked country/' 
Ah me I what wounds I saw, both old and 
recent, 
Upon their members, branded by the fireflakes ; 
Still doth it grieve me, if I but recall it. 
My teacher at their outcries stood attentive ; 
He turned his face toward me, and : '* Wait 

a moment ; " 
He said, "to them *tis fitting to be courteous : 
And, if it were not for the fiery arrows 

Shot by the place's nature, I would tell thee 



15 



Canto XVI] INFERNO 103 

It better suited thee than them to hurry." • 18 
Began they then again, as we too halted, 

The old refrain : and soon as they had 

reached us, 
Formed themselves in a wheel, all three 

together. 2 1 

As champions wont to do, stripped and anointed, 
Considering their grip and their advantage, 
Before they come to mutual blows and 

thnistings, 24 

In such wise, wheeling, each of them his visage 
Raised up to me, so that his neck was making, 
Reversewise to his feet, continual journey. 27 

And if the misery of this place unstable 

Brings to disdain both us and our entreaties," 
Began one, ** and our singed and swarthy aspect, 30 
Let our renown be to thy mind incentive 

To tell us who thou art, who, thus undaunted, 
Frayest thy living feet along hell's pathways. 33 
This one, upon whose prints thou seest me 
pounding. 
For all that now he naked goes and hairless, 
Was of a station greater than thou thinkest : 36 
He was the grandson of the good Gualdrada ; 
His name was Guido Guerra, and in his 

lifetime 
He with his wit wrought much, and with his 

?abre, 39 



T04 



DANTE 



[Canto XVI 



The other who by me the sand is grinding, 
Is Tegghiaio Aldobrandi, whose remembrance 
I the upper world should have glad acceptation. 
And I, who on a cross with them am fastened, 
Was Jacob Rusticucci, and of surety 
My froward wife is, more than aught, my 
ruin/' 
If from the fire I could have had a cover, 

I would have cast myself below among them, 
And think that my instructor would have 
borne it : 
But, since I should have baked myself and 
scalded, 
Fear overcame in me the kindly impulse 
That made me even greedy to embrace 
them. 
Then I began : "Nay, not disdain but sorrow 
This your condition fixed so deep within me 
That slowly is it all obliterated. 
As soon as this my lord to me had spoken 

Words from purport whereof I thought 

within me 
That such a sort of folk as ye were coming. 
Of your own land am 1, and ever and always 
The honoured names of you, and your 

achievements. 
Have pictured with affection, and have 
hearkened. 



42 



45 



4S 



SI 



54 



60 



Canto XVI] INFERNO 105 

I leave the gall, and for sweet fruits am going, 
Promised to me by this my trusty leader : 
But first I needs must drop unto the centre." 63 
" So may thy soul for length of days conductor 
Be to thy limbs,'* he thereupon made answer, 
" And so may thy renown shine bright behind 

thee ; 66 

Tell us if courtesy and valour sojourn 
In such wise as is wont within our city, 
Or if therefrom it is departed wholly : 69 

For GugUelmo Borsiere, who among us 

Mourns lately, and goes yonder with our 

comrades. 
Doth with his words give us no small 

afiiiction." 72 

" The new-come folk, and sudden gains of com- 
merce, 
Pride and excess in such sort have begotten, 
Florence ! in thee, already thou bemoan'st it :" 75 
Thus made I outcry, with my face uplifted. 
The three, who understood that for an 

answer. 
Gazed each, as at sad truth, upon each other. 78 
** If otherwhiles it costeth thee so little 

To satisfy another,'* they all answered, 
" Happy art thou to speak thus at thy pleasure. 8 1 
Wherefore, so may'st thou quit these gloomy 
regions. 



io6 



DANTE 



[Canto XVI 



And go to see again the glorious heavens, 
When to say ' I was there ' it shall delight 
thee. 

See that thou speak of us unto the people." 
With that they broke the wheel, and, to 

accomplish 
Their flight, their nimble legs seemed to be 
pinions. 

An Amen could not have been said so quickly 
As they out of our sight had sudden vanished. 
So to the master to depart seemed fitting. 

I followed him, and but short space we traversed 
When came the sound so near us of the water 
We had been scarcely heard for all our 
speaking. 

Just as that river, which hath proper channel 
At first from Monte Veso to the eastward, 
On the left slope of Apennine descending, 

And which above hath name of Acquacheta 
Ere down into the lower bed it plunges, 
And then at Forli of that name is lacking, 

Booms yonder o'er St. Benedict of the upland, 
To fall thence in a single leap descending, 
Where should have been provision for a 
thousand j 

In such wise, down below a shattered margin. 
We found that dark-hued water so resounding 
That in ghort space of time the ear had suffered. 



^4 



8; 



90 



93 



96 



99 



ro2 



105 



Canto XVI] INFERNO 107 

I had a cord begirded roond about me. 

And therewithal I sometime had been minded 
To catch the panther with the skin depictured. 108 
When I had altogether loosed it fr<Hn me. 
According as my leader had commanded, 
I held it out to him, coiled up and knotted : 1 1 1 
Wheieat towards the right-hand side he turned 
him, 
And, at some httle distance from the border, 
He cast it down into that chasm tremendous. 1 1 4 
' And surely some new thing must needs make 
answer," 
I said within myself, " to the new signal 
That with his eyes the Master thus doth 

second." 1 1 7 

Ah me ! how cautious men should be regarding 
Those who not only see the outward doings, 
But with their wit the thoughts within 

examine. 1 20 

He said to me : " Soon there will come up 
hither 
That which I wait ; and what thy thought is 

dreaming 
Tis fit should soon be to thy sight dis- 
covered." 123 
Ever on truth which hath the face of falsehood 
Should man shut lip as much as he is able ; 
Since it engenders shame, though he be faultless ; 1 26 



io8 DANTE [Canto XVI 

But here I cannot hold my peace, and, reader, 
I swear you by the strains of this my drama — 
So may they not be lacking in long favour — 129 

That through that atmosphere obscure and heavy 
I saw a shape approach us, swimming upward, 
A marvellous thing to any heart undaunted ; 132 

As cometh up a man who goes down, haply, 
To loose an anchor that a rock hath grappled, 
Or other thing that in the sea is hidden, 1 3 5 

Who is spread above and drawn below together. 



Canto xvil 

' Behold the monster with the tail sharp-pointed, 
That passes hills and breaks through arms 

and ramparts : 
Behold the thing that makes the whole world 

sicken : " 3 

Thus did begin to speak to me my leader ; 
Then signed to it to come unto the margin, 
Near by the limit of the trodden marbles. 6 

And nearer came along that loathly image 
Of fraud, and to the brink brought head and 

body; 
But up upon the bank its tail it drew not. 9 

The features of a just man were its features : 
It had the outward semblance so benignant : 
And all the other bulk was of a serpent. 1 2 

Two claws it had, with hair up to the armpits. 
On back and breast and both the sides devices 
Of knots it had depicted, and small bucklers. 1 5 

Not with more colours, laid and interwoven, 
Did ever make a cloth or Turks or Tartars, 
Nor by Arachne were such webs embroidered. 1 8 

As every day upon the shore lie barges, 

That are in part on land and part in water ; 

109 



1X0 



DAKTE 



[Canto XVII 



And as among the gluttonous Germans yonder 

The beaver sets itself to wage its battle ; 
In such wise was that eviliest monster lying 
Upon the edge of stone that locks the sand- 
plain. 

Within the void all of its tail was wriggling, 
Crooking above its bad; the fork envenomed 
That armed the point thereof in scorpion 
fashion. 

My leader said : " Our way must be diverted 
Now for a little space as far as yonder 
Periidious beast, that there its rest is taking," 

So to the right-hand mamelon we descended, 
And on the extreme edge \ve took ten paces ^ 
Of sand and flickering flames to make clear 
riddance. 

And, when we are come up to it, I notice, 
Upon the sand, a little further onward. 
Folk sitting near the part where drops the 
surface. 

Thereat the master said to me ; *' In order 
That full experience of this Round, and 

ample, 
May'st carry, go and see thou their demeanour r 

But very^ brief be there thy conversation* 

Ere thou return, I with this beast will parley 
That it may grant to us its mighty shoulders," 

So once again along the extremest heading 



21 



H 



27 



30 



33 



36 



39 



42 



Canto XVII] INFERNO ill 

Of that seventh circle I, all solitary, 

Went on to where the ^mournful folk were 

sitting. 45 

Their dolour through their eyes was welling outward : 

This side and that they with their hands 
sought succour, 

Now 'gainst the scalding soil, now 'gainst the 

vapours. 48 

Not otherwise do dogs in time of summer, 

Now with the muzzle, now with paw, whenever 

By fleas, or flies, or gadflies they are bitten. 5 1 

When I had set my eyes upon the visage 

Of some on whom the dolorous fire was falling, 

Not one of them I knew ; but I distinguished 54 
That from the neck of each there hung a wallet. 

Which had a certain sign and certain colour ; 

And thereupon it seemed their eye was feeding. 5 7 
And as I came among them, closely looking, 

I saw upon a yellow purse in azure 

What of a lion had the face and semblance. 60 

Then, as the course of my regard proceeded, 

I saw another one like blood for redness. 

Showing a goose that was more white than 

butter, 63 

And one, who of a sow, azure and pregnant. 

Had the device displayed on his white satchel. 

Said to me : ** In this ditch what art thou 

doing ? 66 



ti^ 



DANTE 



tCANTO XVli 



Now go thy way ; and, since thou still art living, 
Know that Vitaliano^ my old neighbour, 
Here soon upon my left flank shall be sitting : 
I am from Padua, and these all from Florence : 
Many a time and oft my ears they deafen. 
Crying out : ' Let him come, the knight sur- 
passing, 
He who will bring the wallet with three he* 
goats.' " 
Here he his mouth distorted, and drew outward 
His tongue, as doth an ox that licks his 
nostrils. 
And I, fearing that longer stay might anger 
Him who had given me warning not to loiter, 
Turned back and left the w^eary souls behind 
me. 
1 found my leader, who had climbed already 
Upon the crupper of the fearsome creature. 
And said to me : '^ Be strong^ now and cour- 
ageous : 
Now the descent is made by such -like ladder : 
Mount thou in front, for I will take the 

middle. 
So that the tail be powerless for mischief/' 
As is a man who hath so near the shiver 
Of quartan ague that his nails are Hvid, 
And at mere sight of shade he quakes all over, 
Just such became I at the words that reached me. 



6i> 



7^ 



7S 



78 



81 



S4 



K7 



Canto XVII] INFERNO 



^n 



But his rebukes wrought shame in me, which 

ever 
Before a good lord's eyes makes valiant ser- 
vant. 
I set myself upon those ugly shoulders ; 

Truly I would have said : — but voice there 

came not 
As I intended — " See thou close embrace me." 
But he, who other times had been my succour 
In other hardness, soon as I had mounted, 
Did with his arms enfold me and sustain me, 
And said : " Now, Geryon, 'tis time, bestir thee ; 
Large be the wheels, and the descent be gentle : 
Think of the novel burden that thou bearest." 
As from its berth puts out a little vessel, 

Backing and backing, so he thence moved 

outward. 
And, when he felt himself at play completely. 
There, where his breast had been, his tail 
directed, 
And stretched it like an eel, and set it moving, 
And with his claws he drew the air towards 
him. 
I think not any greater was the terror 

When Phaethon the chariot reins abandoned 
Whereby the sky, as still appears, was roasted ; 
Nor when' by reason of the wax overheated 
Poor Icarus was ware his loins were moulting. 



90 



93 



96 



99 



ros 



loS 



^H 



DANTE 



[Canto XVII 



1 14 



11; 



His father crying to him: ** Wrong road thou 
takest/' 

Than mine was when 1 saw that I was wholly 
In air on every side, and saw extinguished 
Sight of all things, excepting of the monster. 

It goes its way, swimming on, gently^ gently ; 
Wheels, and descends, but I do not perceive it, 
Save that a light air fans my face from under, 

I heard already on the right the whirlpool 
Making a dreadful roaring down beneath us ; 
Wherefore I stretched my head with eyes bent 

downward. 120 

Then at the precipice I was more fearful ; 

For fires I saw, and became ware of moaningSj 
Whereat, a- quake, I crouched my limbs together. 1 2 3 

And then saw, for before I did not see it. 

The sweep and the descent, by the great horrors 
That near and nearer drew in divers quarters. 

As a ger-hawk, that long enough hath lingered 
On wing without or lure or bird perceiving, 
Making the falconer say, ' Ah, down already V 

Descendeth weary whence he started nimble, 
Wheeling a hundred wheels, at last alighting 
Far from his master, sullen and disdainful ; 

In such wise at the bottom Geryon set us. 
At very foot of the great crag rough -quarried ; 
And, thereupon, our persons once unladen, 

He sped away, as from the string the arrow. 



126 



129 



132 



ns 



CANTO XVIII 

A PLACE there is in hell called Malebolge : 

All rock it is, and of the hue of iron, 

As is the girdle circling round about it. 3 

Right in the middle of the field malignant 

There gapes a pit, of width and depth exceeding, 

Whose ordering I in proper place will tell you. 6 
The enclosure that is left is then a circle 

Between the pit and solid cliff surrounding. 

Its bottom all divided in ten Valleys. 9 

Such figure as, when fosses in succession 

For safeguard of the walls engirdle castles, 

Is by the part that they are in afforded, 1 2 

There in similitude those gulfs presented: 

And, in such fortresses, as from their thresholds 

Unto the outer bank there are small gangways, 1 5 
So from the lowest of the crag ran forward 

Rock-spurs that cut across the dikes and 
fosses 

Right to the pit which lops them off and joins 

them. 1 8 

In this same place, from Geryon's backbone 
shaken, 

We found ourselves ; and to the left the poet 

"5 



ii6 



DANTE 



[Canto XVIII 



Held on his course, and I moved on behind 
him. 
Upon the right hand I beheld new anguish, 
ToTments of a new fashion, and new scourgers, 
Wherewith was filled quite full the outer Valley. 
Down in the bottom naked were the sinners : 
This side the midst they came with lace 

towards us, 
On that went with us, but with g:reater paces ; 
Just as the Romans for that mighty army, 
The year of jubilee, contrived a method 
To pass the folk across the bridge in order : 
For on one side all have their brow directed 
Towards the Castle, and go unto St, Peter ; 
On the othet edge they go towards the 
mountain. 
This side and that, over the gloomy pavement, 
Horned demons I beheld, armed with great 

lashes, 
Who beat them from behind in cruel fashion. 
Ah 1 how they made them lift their shanks 
already 
At the first strokes ! By that time for the 

second 
Not any one, nor for the third, was waiting. 
While 1 was faring on, my eyes confronted 

One of them, and at once I said : " From seeing 
Th^t one before I have not fasted always*" 



24 



30 



33 



36 



19 



45 



Canto XVIII] INFERNO ti>^ 

Therefore, to know his face, my feet I planted ; 
And my sweet leader halted there beside me. 
And gave assent I should go somewhat 

backward. 4 5 

And that bescourged one thought to make con- 
cealment. 
Lowering his face, but little it availed him ; 
Because I said : " Thou with thine eye cast 

earthward, 48 

If that the features be not false thou bearest, 
Thou art Venedico Caccianimico : 
But what brings thee to such a stinging 

Salse?" 51 

And he to me : " With ill content I tell thee ; 
But thy clear utterance doth overpower me. 
Which makes me bring the old world to my 

remembrance. 54 

I was the one who led Ghisolabella 
To do the evil bidding of the Marquis, 
However may be noised the shocking story. ^7 
Nor weep I solitary from Bologna : 

Indeed, so full of them is all this region 
That not so many tongues are now instructed 60 
Between Savena and Reno to say ' Sipa * : 
And, if of this thou would' st have faith or 

witness. 
Call thou to mind our avaricious temper." 63 

While he was speaking thus, a demon smote him 



ri8 



DANTE [Canto XVIlt 



Hard with his thong, and said : ** Begone, 
thou pandar : 

There are no women hereabout for coining.*' 66 
I ranged myself again beside my escort : 

Thereafter we arrivta in a few paces 

Where from the bank a rock-spur was pro- 
jecting r 69 
Quite hghtsomely upon it we ascended, 

And, turning to the right along its ridges, 

From those eternal circles made departure. 72 

When we were at the point at which it opens 

Below, to give to the belashed a passage, 

My leader said : " Hold fast : and of these 

others 7% 

lU-fated, let the visage strike upon thee, 

Of whom as yet thou didst not see the 
features, 

By reason that with us they fared together.** 78 
From the old bridge we gazed on the procession 

Which toward us on the other side was coming, 

And which the lash was driving in like manner. 8 1 
Without demand of mine, my gentle master 

Said to me : '' Watch that great one who is 
coming, 

And seems not to shed tears for all the dolour : 84 
How kingly still doth he remain in aspect \ 

That one is Jason, who by wit and valour 

Deprived of their great ram the men of Colchis. S7 



Canto XVIII] INFERNO 119 

He on his way passed through the isle of Lemnos, 
What time the daring women, spuming pity» 
Had given unto death all their male kindred. 90 
There with love- tokens and with ornate language 
Did he beguile Hypsipylfe, the damsel 
Who had before beguiled the other women. 93 

He left her there, with child and solitary : 
Such fault to such sore torment doth con- 
demn him : 
And vengeance is done also for Medea : 96 

With him goes whoso doth beguile in such wise. 
And this may be enough of the first valley 
To know, and those whom in its teeth it 

clutches." 99 

Already were we where the narrow pathway 

Makes with the second dike a junction cross- . 

wise. 
And makes the shoulders for another archway. 102 
Thence we were ware of folk in the next Valley 
Who moan with pain, and snuffle with their 

muzzles, 
And smite with their own palms upon their 

bodies. 105 

The bank-sides were with noisome mould in- 
crusted 
By the breath from down below that clots 

upon them, 
Which made a battle with the eyes and nostrils. 108 



120 



bANTE [Canto XVIIl 



The bottom is so deep no place suffices 
To see, except by mounting on the saddle 
O' the arch where that the rock-spnr hangs most 

forward, 1 1 1 

Thither we came, and thence, i* the ditch below 

I saw a folk immersed in one vast cesspit, 
That seemed to have been filled from human 

privies, 1 1 4 

And, while I with my eye down there was search- 
ing, 
I saw one with his head so foul with ordure 
That whether he were lay or clerk appeared 
not. 
He cried aloud to me : " Why art so greedy 
To gaze on me more than the other filthy ?" 
And I to him : " Why, if I well remember, 
I saw thee once before with hair unwetted ; 
Thou art Alessio Interminei of Lucca : 
Therefore I eye thee more than all the 
others/' 

And he at that, beating upon his noddle : 
*' Down here below my flatteries have drowned 
me. 
Whereof I never found my tongue had sur- 
feit," 126 
Just after that my leader said : '" Contrive now 
To stretch thy face a little further forward, 



117 



120 



1^3 



Canto XVIll] INFERNO 121 

That with thine eyes thou well may*st reach 

the features 129 

Of yonder loathsome and dishevelled baggage, 
Who there with ordurous nails herself is 

scratching, 
Now crouching, now upon her feet uprisen. 132 
She is the harlot Thais, she who answered 
Her paramour, when he asked her : * Have I 

many 
Thanks as regarding thee ? * * Nay, thanks 

astounding/ 1 3 5 

And let our sight herewith be satiated." 



XIX 



Simon Magus ! O forlorn disciples ! 
Ye, who the things of God, that ought of 

goodness 

To be the spouses, make, by your extortion, 
Adulterous for sake of gold and silver ; 

For you in turn must now resound the trumpet, 

Seeing that ye ai-e set in the third Valley, 
We had already to the tomb succeeding 

Mounted upon the rock-spur, on that portion 

That plumbs the pit exactly o'er the middle. 
Wisdom supreme, how vast the art thou showest, 

In heaven, in earth, and in the world of evil ; 

And what just measure doth thy power dis- 
tribute ! 

1 saw along the sides, and on the bottom, 

The hvid rock quite full of orifices, 

Of one width aJl, and every one a circle. 

They not less ample seemed to me nor greater 
Than those that in my own fair San Giovanni 
Are made for standing-place of the baptizer^ : 

One of which same, not many years yet bygone, 
I broke for one who therewithin was drowning : 
This shall be seal for all men's undeceiving. 



IS 



18 



31 



Canto XIX] iNFERNO 12^ 

Forth from the mouth of every one projected 
A sinner's feet, and of his legs a portion 
Up to the calf : inside was the remainder. 24 

The soles of all of them were both enkindled ; 
Whereat so mightily the joints were writhing 
That they had snapped asunder bands and 

withies. 27 

Like as the blaze is wont upon things oily 
Only along the outer rind to travel, 
So was it there, from heels unto the toe- tips. 30 
" Who is that one, dear master, who is angered. 
Writhing more than the others his com- 
panions,** 
I said, ** and whom a redder flame is 

sucking ? ** 33 

And he to me : ** If thou wilt have me bear thee 
Below there by yon bank which is more sloping, 
From him shalt know of him, and his wrong 

doings." 36 

And I : ** Tis fair to me as to thee pleasing : 
Thou art my lord, and know'st that I depart 

not 
From what thou wilFst, and know*st what is 

unspoken." 39 

On to the top of the fourth dike then came we : 
We turned, and to the left hand we descended 
Down in the bottom, orificed and narrow. 42 

And my good master still did from his haunches 



t^4 



DANTE 



[Canto XIX 



Not set me down till to the hole be fetched me 
Of him who with his shanks was so lamenting, 45 
** Whoe'er thou art^ who keep^st thy top part under, 
Pitiful soul, just like a stake fast driven/' 
Gan I to say, " pray speak if thou art able." 48 
I stood as stands a friar that confesses 
The treacherous assassin, who recalls him 
When he is fbced, whereby death stays a little. s t 
And he cried out : " Art upright there already, 
Boniface ? art thou there already upright ? 
By several years then is the scroll a liar. 54 

So soon art satiated of that having, 

For which thou did'st not fear to take the lady 
So fair by guile, and afterward to outrage ? " 57 
Such I became as those are whose demeanour, 
From understanding not the answer given 

them, 
Is as if mocked, nor know they how to answer, 60 
Then straightway Virgil said : " Say to him 
quickly, 
' I am not the one^ I am not the one, thou 
thinkest.' '' 

And I made answer as was laid upon me : 6^ 

Whereat the spirit writhed in every muscle 

His feet : then, sighing, and with voice of weeping, 
He said to me : " Then what of me art 

asking ? 66 

if to know who I am so much concerns thee 



Canto XlX] INFERNO 125 

That thou hast therefore passed adown the 

bankside, 
Know thou that I was clothed with the great 

mantle, 69 

And was of very truth son of the She-bear ; 
So covetous, for advancement of the bearcubs, 
That wealth above, and here myself, I 

hoarded. 72 

Beneath my head are drawn away the others 
Who were in simony my predecessors. 
Deep in the fissures of the rock imbedded. 7 5 

I, likewise, shall drop down below, whenever 
Shall come that other one for whom I took 

thee. 
Then when I asked of thee the sudden ques- 
tion. 78 
But longer is the time my feet I have roasted 
Already, and have thus been topsy-turvy, 
Than he with red-hot feet will stayjimplanted : 8 1 
For after him shall come, of fouler doings. 

From towards the setting sun a lawless pastor, 
Such as is fit both him and me to cover. 84 

New Jason shall he be, of whom is written 
In Maccabees : and, as to one was gentle 
His king, so shall to him be France's ruler." 87 
I know not if I was not here too heedless ; 

For even in this strain I made him answer : 
** Tell me, oh ! tell me, now, how ^eat a treasury 90 



126 



DANTE 



[Canto XIX 



Wanted our Lord beforehand from St. Peter, 
Ere that he put the keys into his keeping ? 
Certain, save ' Follow me/ he asked for 
nothing. 
Nor Peter nor the rest asked of Matthias 
Silver or gold when he by lot was chosen 
In the place whereof the guilty soul made 
forfeit. 
Therefore keep still, for thou art rightly punished ; 
And keep good guard of the iU-gotten money 
That against Charles made thee hecome so 
zealous. 
And, were it not that even now forbids me 
The reverence due unto the keys exalted, 
Whereof thou wast in the glad life the holder, 
I would make use of words even more weighty : 
For this your avarice the world doth sadden, 
Trampling the good and raising up the wicked. 
You the Evangelist discerned, you pastors, 
When she who hath her seat upon the waters 
Was seen of him with kings committing 
whoredom ; 
She who with sevenfold heads came into being, 
And had the tenfold horn for demonstration! 
While virtue in her bridegroom's eyes found 
favour. 
A god ye have made yourselves of gold and 
silver, 



93 



gfi 



99 



los 



Jo8 



r 1 1 



Canto XIX] INFERNO 127 

And from idolaters what else divides you, 
Save that they pray to one and you a 

hundred ? 114 

Ah ! Constantine, of how great ill was mother, 
Not thy conversion, but that fatal dowry, 
Which from thy hands received the first rich 

Father." 117 

And while to him such notes as these I chanted, 
Whether 'twas wrath or conscience' prick that 

stung him, 
With both his soles he mightily was kicking. 1 20 
I am sure that to my guide it was well-pleasing : 
With so content a countenance he hearkened. 
All through, the sound o' the words of truth 

explicit. 1 2 3 

And thereupon with both his arms he took me, 
And, when all up beside his breast he had me, 
He climbed back by the way where he des- 
cended : 126 
Nor wearied he to have me strained against him, 
Till to the summit of the arch he bore me 
That from the fourth to the fifth dike is foot- 
path : 129 
And softly there did he lay down the burden, 
Softly because o' the steep and ugly rock-spur, 
That would to she-goats be a toilsome passage. 1 3 2 
Thence was another vale to me discovered. 



CANTO XX 



Of novel pain behoves me to make verses, 
And give the matter to this canto twenty 
Of the first poem, which is of the sunken. 
By this I was disposed with all my powers 
For gazing into the discovered bottom^ 
Which was with tears of bitter anguish 
watered ] 
And saw folk coming through the great round 
valley, 
In silence and in tears, the same step keeping 
As in this world keep litany processions. 
As lower down on them my sight descended, 
In marvellous fashion each of them seemed 

twisted 
Between the chin and where the chest com- 
mences. 
For round towards the loins was turned the 
visage, 
And need was laid on them of coming back- 
ward. 
Because to see in front had been denied them. 
Perchance ere now by[|reason of a palsy 

Some one hath thu3 been utterly contorted ; 

III 



12 



IS 



Canto XX] INFERNO 129 

But neither saw I it, nor do believe it. i 

So God permit thee, reader, fruit to gather 
Of this thy reading, for thyself a moment 
Consider how I could keep dry my eyelids, 2 1 

When I beheld near by me our own image 
Distorted so that from the eyes the weeping 
Watered the buttocks down along the fissure. 24 

Certain, I wept, supported on a comer 
Of the hard spur, so freely that my escort 
Said to me : "Art thou still among the simple ? 27 

Here piety lives when wholly dead is pity. 
Who is than he more desperately wicked 
Who to the doom divine doth bring com- 
passion ? 30 

Raise, raise, thy head, and see him for whom 
opened 
The earth her jaws in sight of all the Thebans : 
Whereat they cried aloud : ' Whither art 

rushing, * 33 

Amphiaraiis,^ why dost leave the battle ? ' 
And in his headlong downward rush he stayed 

not 
Till he reached Minos, who holds fast all comers. 3 6 

Observe, he hath a breast made of his shoulders : 
Because he fain would see too far before him, 
He looketh back, and maketh backward 

journey. 39 

Tiresias see too, who changed his semblance, 



130 



DANTE 



[Canto XX 



What time he from a male became a female. 
Changing his members, one and all, for others : 
And then the need was laid on him of beating 
Down with his wand the two entwisted serpents, 
Ere he could have again his manly feathers. 
Anins is he who backs against his belly ; 

He who in Luni's hills (where pulls the thistles 
The Carrarese, who lower hath his dwelling,) 
Amongst the glittering marbles had the cavern 
For his abode ; from whence to watch the 

heavens, 
And watch the sea^ not shortened was his 
prospect. 
And yonder one who covers op her bosom, 
Which thou dost see not, with unloosened 

tresses, 
And on the other side hath skin all hairy, 
Was Manto, who made search through many 
countries : 
And afterwards where I was born she tarried : 
Wherefore I will thou hearken me a little. 
After her father from this life departed, 

And into bondage came the town of Bacchus, 
She for a great while through the world went 
faring. 
Above, in Italy's fair land, a basin 

Lies 'neath the alp that locks the German 
confine 



43 



4S 



48 



51, 



541 



57. 



1^^ 



Canto XX] INFERNO 131 

Over Tyrol, which hath for name Benacus. 63 

Through thousand springs, I think, and more, 
the Pennine 
Is washed Hwixt Val Camonica and Garda, 
By water that in that same basin stagnates. 66 

r the midst a place is where the Brescian Pastor, 
And he of Trent, and he too of Verona, 
Might make the sign, if he should take that 

journey. 69 

Peschiera lies, a fair and mighty bulwark, « 

Fit for confronting Bergamese and Bresciaiis, 
Where the surrounding bank hath settled 

lower. 72 

There, one and all, must tumble down whatever 
Cannot remain embosomed in Benacus, 
And make a river down through verdant 

pastures. 7 5 

Soon as the water makes a head for running, 
Tis called the Mincio, and no more Benacus, 
To where it falls in Po down by Governo : 78 

Not far its course before it finds a level, 

Wherein it spreads, and makes thereof a 

marish. 
And often in the summer time is sickly. 8 1 

There, on her passage, did the savage maiden 
Espy in midst of the morass a region 
Uncultivated and devoid of dwellers. 84 

There, that she might escape all human consort, 



132 



DANTE 



[Canto XX 



She halted ^ith her train, to ply her magic, 

And lived, and there she left her empty body. Sj 
The men thereafter who aronnd were scattered 

Betook them to that place, which was a 
stronghold 

From the morass it had on every quarter, 90 

And over those dead bones they made a city, 

And for her sake who first the place bad chosen 

Mantua, without more augury, they called it. 93 
Aforetime were its folk within more crowded. 

Before the foolishness of Casalodi 

Was led into a trap by Pinamonte, gS 

Therefore I warn thee, that, if e'er thou hearest 

My land had origin in other fashion, 

The truth may by no falsehood be defrauded/' 99 
And I : "To me, dear master, thy discourses 

So certain are, and hold so fast my credence, 

That others would to me be but spent embers. 102 
But tell me of the folk that make procession, 

If any thou dost see of them noteworthy, 

For upon that alone my mind is working." 105 

Then he to me said : *' He who from his cheek- 
bone 

Puts forth his beard above his swarthy 
shoulders 

Was. at the time when Greece of males was 

empty, loS 

So that remained scarce any for the cradles, 



Canto XX] INFERNO 133 

An augur, and with Calchas gave the moment 
To cut at AuUs the first mooring cable. 1 1 1 

Eurypylus his name, and so doth sing him 
My lofty tragedy in such a passage : 
Thou know'st it well, who know'st it all 

completely 114 

That other, who is in the flanks so slender, 
Was Michael Scotus, who in very surety 
Knew well the game of all the frauds of magic. 1 1 7 
Guido Bonatti see, and see Asdente, 

Who now wovdd fain upon his thread and 

leather 
Have set his mind ; but late is his repentance. 1 20 
See there the unfortunates who left the needle, 
The spindle and the distaff, and turned 

witches : 
With herbs and images their spells they 

practised. \ 123 

But come now, for already on the limit 
Of either hemisphere, and under Seville 
Touching the wave, stands Cain with bunch of 

briar; 126 

And yesternight the moon was round already. 
Well mayest thou recall it, for it did thee 
No harm from time to time in the deep forest." 129 
Thus he discoursed, and we the while went • 
onward. 



CANTO XXI 



Thus, on from bridge to other bridge, discoursing 

Of things my comedy cares not to sing of, 

We came, and were by now the summit holding, 
When we made halt to see another fissure 

Of Malebolge, and more idle moanings. 

And I beheld it marvellously darksome. 
As in the arsenal of the Venetians 

Boils the tenacious pitch in time of winter, 

For tarring of their barks unsound and leaky, 
That cannot sail — and, for a task alternate, 

One doth renew his bark, one caulks the 
broadsides 

Of his which hath completed many a voyage ; 
One at the prow, one at the stern doth hammer ; 

Others make oars, and others twist the 
cordage ; 

One puts new canvas in the main or foresail^ 
So, not by fire but by divine contrivance, 

There boiled below a mass of dense bitumen, 

That smeared the bank with sHme on every 
quarter. 
I saw it, but I did not see within it 

More than the bubbles that the boiling lifted ; 



IS 



iH 



Canto XXI] INFERNO 135 

Saw them swell up, and sink again, collapsing. 2 1 
While I was gazing there below intently, 
" Take heed, take heed," my leader said, and 
drew me 
Unto him from the place where I was 

standing. 24 

Then I turned round, as one who is impatient 
To see a thing wherefrom he should be fleeing, 
And whom a sudden fear deprives of courage, 27 
Who, for the sight, delays not his departure ; 
And I espied behind us a black devil 
Coming along upon the rock-spur, running. 30 

Ah me ! how fearsome was he in his aspect. 
How pitiless he seemed in his demeanour. 
With open wings, and on his feet how nimble ! 3 3 
Upon his shovdder, which was sharp and 
haughty, 
A sinner made a load with both his haunches, 
And of the feet he held fast gripped the 

tendons. 36 

O Evil-Claws," he said from off our causeway, 
** Here is one of the ancients of St. Zita : 

Put him beneath, for I am again returning 39 

To that same land I have well furnished with 
them. 
A jobber is each one, except Bonturo : 
' Nay * there becometh * Yea ' for sake of 

money." 42 



136 



DANTE 



[Canto XXI 



43 



SI 



He flung him down below, his steps retracing 
Along the solid spur^ and never mastiff 
Let slip was at such speed to chase a robber. 45 
The other plunged, and rose again bent double. 
But they, the fiends who had the bridge for 
cover, 
Cried out : " The holy face hath here no 

station : 
Here other swimming is than in the Serchio : 
Therefore, if hast no liking for our scratches, 
Do not above the pitch make thy appearance/' 
With more than hundred grapnels then they 
nipped him : 
They said : " Thou here must make thy dance 

in cover, 
So that, if canst, thou make a catch in 

secret.'' 54 

Not otherwise do cooks oblige their scullions 
To plunge down in the middle of the cauldron 
The meat with hooks, that it may not come 

floating. 57 

The gentle master said to me : '* In order 

That it appear not thou art here, squat lowly 
Behind a ridge, so as to have some shelter. 60 

And as to any harm that may be done me, 
Fear thou not, for these things I count 

familiar ; 
For I was once before at such a contest," 63 



Canto XXI] INFERNO 137 

And then he passed on thence towards the 
bridge-head : 
And, as he came above the sixth embankment, 
Much need was his to have a brow un- 
daunted. 66 
With just such fury, and with just such tempest, 
As dogs go forth at heels of a poor beggar, 
Who suddenly asks alms where he has halted, 69 
They issued from beneath upon the gangway. 
And turned against him all their grappling 

irons. 
But he cried out : " Let none of you be 

wicked! 72 

Before that hook of yours lays hold upon me. 
Let one of you step forth to give me audience. 
And then of grappling me be counsel taken." 75 
** Go, Evil- tail : '* they cried aloud together : 

Whereat one started, — while stood still the 

others — 
And came unto him, saying : '* What avails it ? " 78 
** Thinkest thou, Evil-tail, that thou dost see me 
As one who has come hither,*' said my 
master, 
'* Against all your defence thus far in safety, 8 1 

Without the will divine and fate propitious ? 
Let us go on, for it is willed in heaven 
That I should show another this wild 

journey.'* 84 



138 



DANTE 



[Canto XXI 



At that his arrogance became so fallen 
That to his feet he let his hook fall idle, 
And said to the rest : " Let him not now be 

smitten," 87 

My leader then to me : " Ho ! thou who sit test 
Asquat among the ridges of the causeway, 
Now mayest thou come back to me securely." 90 
Whereat I roae, and quickly came towards him ; 
And all the devils made a motion forward, 
So that I feared they would not keep the 

bargain. 93 

And once in just such fear I saw the soldiers 
Who under pact of safety Left Caprona, 
Seeing themselves in midst of foes so many. 96 

Closely I ranged myself^ with all my body, 
Beside my leader, nor my eyes diverted 
From the aspect of them, which was not 

kindly. 99 

They lowered their forks, and : '* Wilt thou 
that I touch him/' 
One to another said, " upon the crupper ? " 
And they made answer : '* Ay, make sure 

to nick him." 102 

But the first demon, who discourse was holding 
With my conductor, turned round very 

quickly, 
And said : *' Steady now, steady. Tangle- 
maker : *' 105 



Canto XXI] INFERNO 139 

Then said to us : " Along this spur no further 
Is any means of going, for all shattered 
The sixth arch lies right down unto the bottom. 1 08 
And if 'tis still your pleasure to go forward, 
Then go your way along by this embank- 
ment : 
Another spur is nigh, that makes a pathway. 1 1 1 
Yesterday, five hours later than this moment, 
A thousand and ten score, with six and sixty. 
Made up of years, since here the way was 

broken. 1 1 4 

I am sending thither some of these my people 
To watch if any one should take an airing : 
Go you with them, for they will not be guilty. 1 1 7 
Bring thyself forward, Droop-wing, and thou. 
Tread-frost,'* 
Then he began to say, ** and thou too. Dog- 
nose, 
And of the half score Frizzle-beard be leader. 1 20 
Let Dragon-snout moreover come, and Joker, 
Dodger with the buck-teeth, and Scratch- the- 

puppy ; 
And Colts-foot come, and Blazing-face the 

raging: 123 

Make search around the boiling pot of birdlime : 
See these be safe as far as the next rock-ledge, 
That goes above the lairs wholly unbroken." 126 
" Ah me ! " I said, *' what is it I see, dear master ? 



140 DANTE [Canto XXI 

Ah ! let us go alone without an escort, 
If know'st the way : for me, I do not ask it. 129 
If thou hast ta'en such notice as art wonted, 
Dost thou not see that with their teeth they 

are gnashing, 
And with their eyebrows threaten us some 

mischief?-" 132 

And he to me : ** I will not have thee fearful : 
Let them gnash on, just as their fancy takes 

them : 
Tis for the doleful sodden ones they do it." 135 
They made a wheel along the dike to leftward ; 
But each of them had first towards their leader 
Shot out his tongue between his teeth for 

signal; 138 

And he had made a trumpet of his bowel. 



CANTO XXII 

I HAVE seen horsemen breaking camp aforetime, 
And starting on a charge, or else parading, 
And sometimes for security retreating ; 3 

I have seen flying squadrons through your 
country, 
O Aretines, and foray parties marching, 
The shock of tournaments, and rush of 

joustings, 6 

Anon with sound of bells, anon of trumpets, 
With sound of drum-beat, and with castle- 
signals, 
With things of our own country and with 

foreign ; 9 

But never with so singular a bugle 

Have I seen horsemen moving, no, nor foot- 
men. 
Nor ship to sign of lan4 or star responding. 1 2 

We went along with the half -score of demons — 
Ah ! fearsome company ; but ' in the chapel 
With saintly men, and in the inn with 
gluttons ! ' 15 

Entirely to the pitch I gave attention. 
To notice every aspect of the Valley, 

141 



142 



DANTE 



[Canto XXII 



And of the folk who therewithin were scalded, i a 
As dolphins do, what time they make a signal 
To mariners with the arching of their back- 
bone, 
To stand by for the safety of their vessel, 
So, ever and anon, the pain to lighten, 

His back showed one or other of the sinners^ 
And hid it in less time than lightning flashes. 
And as frogs stay upon the edge of w^ater 
Within a ditch, with only muzzle showing, 
So that the feet and other bulk they cover, 
So were the sinners staying in every quarter ; 
But, as towards them Frizzle-beard came nearer, 
So they withdrew themselves beneath the 
boilings. 
I saw — and at it still my heart doth shudder — 
One lingering, in such wise as it happens 
That one frog stays behind and dives another. 
And Scratch-the-puppy, who was more abreast 
him, 
Caught with his grappling-iron his pitch- 
soaked tresses, 
And drew him up, who seemed to me an otter. 36 
Of one and all T knew the name already ; 

So had I noted them when they were chosen, 

And after, when they named each other, 

listened. 

'* Now, Blazing-face^ see to it that thou fasten 



i4 



27 



50 



33 



Canto XXII] INFERNO 143 

Thy talons into him so as to flay him," 
Cried out together all the gang accursed. 42 

And I : *' Dear master, pray, if thou art able. 
Contrive to know who is the wretch mis- 
fortuned 
Come to the hands of these his adversaries.*' 45 
At that my guide went over close beside him ; 
Asked him from whence he was; and he made 
answer : 
" Of the kingdom of Navarre I was a native ; 48 

My mother put me servant to a noble ; 

For she had borne me by a good-for-nothing, 
A waster of himself and of his substance. 5 1 

Then entered I the good king Thibault's service : 
And there I set myself to play the jobber ; 
Whereof account I render in this scalding.*' 54 

And Dodger, he from out whose mouth there 
issued. 
As from a boar's, a tusk in every quarter. 
Made him aware how one of them could rip 

him. 57 

In midst of evil cats the mouse had fallen. 

But Frizzle-beard made with his arms a barrier, 
And said: " Stay over there till! enfork him !" 60 
And turned his countenance towards my master : 
** Ask him," he said, ** again, if thou desirest 
To know more from him, ere the rest undo 

him." 63 



144 



DANTE 



[Canto XXII 



My leader then : *' Pray tell ; of the other 
culprits 
Knowest thou anyone who is a Latin 
Beneath the pitch ? *' And he : "I have 
departed 
But now from one who was thereby a neighbour. 
So would I still were with him under cover ! 
For I should not be fearing hook nor talon/' 
And Joker said : " Enough and more we have 
suffered [ " 
And caught his arm so with his grappling- 
iron, 
He tore away a strip of it completely. 
Dragon-snout too showed eagerness to grip him 
Dowm on the legs ; whereat their file- 

comnia.nder 
Turned himself round about with evil aspect. 
When they were pacified again a little, 
Without delay my leader thus demanded 
Of him, who still upon his wound was gazing : 
'' Who was the one from whom an ill departure 
Thou sayest thou didst make, for coming 

shoreward ? " 
And he made answer : "He was Era Gomita, 
- He of Gallura* of all fraud a vessel ; 

Who his lord's enemies in hand had gotten, 
And dealt so with them each was well 
contentedt 



66 



69 



72 



75 



78 



Si 



84 



Canto XXII] INFERNO 145 

Money he took, and let them go in quiet : 
He says himself : and in his other functions 
He was a jobber too, not small, but sovran : 87 

With him frequenteth the Lord Michael Zanche 
Of Logodoro, nor in their discoursing 
About Sardinia do their tongues feel weary. 90 

Ah me ! look at the other one there gnashing. 
I would speak further, but I fear me that one 
Is making ready now to scratch my scurvy." 93 
And the Grand Provost, turning round to 
Coltsfoot, 
Who, to make better stroke, his eyes was 

roUing, 
Said : ** Get thyself away, thou bird per- 
fidious." 96 
If ye desire to have or sight or hearing," 

Began again the terror-stricken straightway, 
** Of Tuscans or of Lombards, I will fetch them : 99 
But let the evil claws be in retirement 

A little, that they may not fear their 

vengeance. 
And I, while I in this same place am sitting, 102 
For one I am, will bring another seven. 
When I shall whistle, as it is our custom 
To do when any comes above the surface." 105 
Dog-nose at such-like words threw up his muzzle. 
Shaking his head, and said : " Hark to the 
cunning 



146 DANTE [Canto XXII 

He thought of to get chance to cast him 

downward." io8 

Whereat he, who had store in great abundance 
Of snares, repHed : "I am too cunning truly, 
When for my own I get increase of sorrow." 1 1 1 
Droop-wing could not refrain, and going counter 
To the others said to him : *' If thou go under, 
I will not come behind thee at a gallop, 1 1 4 

But up above the pitch will flap my pinions. 
Leave we the summit, and the bank be 

buckler, 
To see if thou alone canst overreach us." 117 

Now, reader, thou shalt hear a sport quite novel. 
Each to the other side his eyes diverted, 
He first who 'gainst so doing had been sourest. 1 20 
He of Navarre chose well his time, and planted 

His soles firm on the ground, and in a moment ' 

Leapt, and unloosed himself from their set 

purpose; 123 

Whereat each one felt for the fault compunction. 
He most, who was occasion of the failure. 
So started he, and cried aloud : '* Thou art 

taken." 126 

But Httle it availed him, for the pinions 

Could not outstrip the fright ; the one went 

under : 
And, flying up, his breast the other 

straightened. 129 



Canto XXII] INFERNO 147 

Not otherwise the wild duck, in an instant, 
When near the falcon draweth, downward 

plunges ; 
And it returns on high, in wrath and baffled. 132 

Tread-frost at that, indignant to be cheated, 
Flying behind, laid hold of him, delighted 
That the other should escape, to have the 

quarrel : 135 

And, as the jobber made his disappearance. 
He turned his talons in upon his comrade. 
And came above the ditch with him in grapple. 1 3 8 

But in good sooth for clawing him the other 
Was a wild sparrow-hawk, and both together 
In the middle of the boiling pool they tumbled. 141 

The heat was a disgrappler very sudden ; 

And yet there was no sign of their uprising ; 

In such wise were their pinions slimed together. 1 44 

Frizzle-beard with the rest of his, lamenting. 
To the other side bid four of them fly over 
With all their grapnels ; and they, very 

quickly, 1 47 

This way and that, unto their posts departed : 
They held their hooks out towards the 

entangled wretches. 
Who were well cooked within the crust 

already : 150 

And so we left them, in such sort embarrassed. 



CANTO XXIII 

Silent, and lonely, and without attendance, 
We went our way, one first, the other after. 
As minor friars go along a pathway. 

My thought had been diverted to the fable 
Of iEsop, as I watched the present quarrel, 

• Where of the frog he spake and of the field- 
mouse : 

For **Ay " and " Yes " have not more close 
resemblance 
Than one has with the other, if beginning 
And end with steady mind are well accoupled. 

And, even as one thought bursteth from another. 
So was another straightway born of that one. 
Which made the primal fear within me double. 

I thought on this wise : These, on our occasion, 
Have been befooled with damage and with 

flouting 
Of such sort that I quite believe it frets them. 

If wrath is woven on top of evil purpose, 
They will be coming after us, more cruel 
Than is the hound to the poor hare it seizes. 

I felt my hair all standing up already 

With fear, and I was all attent to rearward, 

148 



Canto XXIII] INFERNO 149 

When thus I said : '* Master, unless thou 
quickly 2 1 

Dost hide thyself and me, I am in terror 

Of Evil-Claws : we have them now behind us : 

My fancy limns them so that now I feel them." 24 

And he : '* Were I of glass with leaden lining, 
I could not draw to me thine outward image 
More quickly than I do engrave the inward. 27 

Just now thy thoughts amongst my own were 
coming, 
With a like action and a like presentment. 
So that of both I made a single counsel. 30 

If the fact be the right bank is so sloping 

That we can make descent to the next valley, 
We shall escape from the imagined hunting." 33 

Such counsel he had not yet ended giving, 
When I espied them coming on wide pinions. 
Not very far away, seeking to take us. 36 

All on a sudden then my leader took me ; 
As doth a mother, who by noise is wakened, 
And close beside her sees the flames a-blazing, 39 

Who takes the child, and flies, and does not 
tarry 
(Having more care for him than her own 

person) 
So much as to put on an undergarment ; 42 

And, from the summit of the hard bank dropping. 
Supine to the hanging crag himself committed, 



150 



DANTE 



[Canto XXIII 



That closes up one side of the next Valley. 
Never did water run through sluice so quickly 
To put an overshot mill-wheel in motion, 
When it approaches nearest to the paddles, 
As did my master slip adown that selvage, 
Bearing me thence along upon his bosom ^ 
As I had heen his son^ not a companion. 
Hardly his feet had yet attained the bottom 
O' the depth below, when they were on the 

summit 
Above us ; but no thought was there of 
danger : 
For Providence exalted, which was minded 
As ministers of the fifth ditch to set them, 
Withholds from all the power of thence 
departing. 
Down there we found a folk of painted visage^ 
That went around with steps exceeding 

sluggish, 
Weeping, and in their looks subdued and 
weary. 
Gowns they were wearing, with low hoods upon 
them 
Drooping before their eyes, made in such 

fashion 
As in Cologne they make for the monastics. 
Gilded they are outside, so that it dazzles, 
But inwardly all lead^ and are so heavy 



4Sl 



51 



S4 



60 



63 






Canto XXIII] INFERNO 151 

That Frederic but of straw compelled the 

wearing. 66 

Oh ! mantle of fatigue for everlasting ! 

We turned our course again, still to the 

leftward, 
Along with them, intent on the sad weeping. 69 
But, from the weight, that weary folk was coming 
So very slowly on, that new companions 
We had at every moving of the haunches. 72 

Wherefore I to my guide : ** Do thou find some- 
one 
Who may be known by name or by his doings. 
And move thy eyes around, as we go forward.** 7 5 
And one, who understood the words of Tuscan, 
Behind us cried aloud : ** Steady your foot- 
steps. 
Ye who thus 'thwart the murky air are 

speeding : 78 

Haply shalt have from me that which thou 
seekest.** 
Whereat my leader turned and said : ** Await 

him. 
And then according to his pace go onward." 81 
I halted, and saw two, in face displaying 
Great eagerness of spirit to be with us ; 
But the strait path delayed them, and the 

burden. 84 

When they came up, with eye somewhat aslantin^, 



152 



DANTE [Canto XXIII 



Without a word they fixed their gaze upon 
me : 

Then to each other turned and spoke together : 87 
This one appears Jilive hy his throat's action : 

And, if they are dead, then by what dis- 
pensation 

Go they uncovered by the heavy garment ? '* 90 
Then said to me : *' Oh 1 Tuscan, who the college 

Of the sad hypocrites art come to visit, 

Have it not in disdain to say who art thou." 93 
And I to him : '* O'er the fair stream of Arno 

I was both horn and bred, in the great city ; 

And I am with the body I had always. 96 

But who are ye, in whom so great a sorrow 

As that I see adown the cheeks doth trickle ? 

And what the pain within you that thus 

sparkles ? ' 99 

And one replied to me : " The gowns of orange 

Are leaden, and so thick that in this fashion 

The weights do set the balances a-creaking. 102 
We two were Joyous Friars, from Bologna : 

I Catalan, and this one Loderingo, 

By namCj and chosen by thy land together, 105 
As one sole man is usually taken, 

To keep its peace : and we were such like 
keepers 

As still are seen around about Gardingo/' io8 

Thus I began : " Oh ! Brothers^ these your evils/ '^r 



Canto XXIII] INFERNO 153 

But s.aid no more ; for one my eyes confronted, 
Crucified with three stakes upon the roadway. 1 1 1 
When he beheld me, he gan writhe all over. 
Puffing within his beard, with frequent 

sighings. 
And Catalan, who thereat apprehended, 1 14 

' Yon pierced one,'* said to me, ** at whom thou 
gazest. 
Counselled the Pharisees that it was needful 
To put one man to torment for the people. 1 1 7 

Athwart the pathway is he set, and naked, 
As thou dost see ; and he must, whosoever 
Doth pass, first feel how much he weighs, 

while passing. 120 

And in like manner suffers his wife's father 
Within this ditch, and the others of the 

council. 
Which for the Hebrews was an evil sowing." 123 
Then did I see that Virgil marvelled greatly 
At him who was as on a cross extended 
So shamefully in the eternal exile. 126 

Then to the friar he these words directed : 
** Be not displeased, if so you may, to tell us 

If on the right hand lieth any gullet, 129 

Whereby we may be able both to issue, 

Without constraining some of the black angels 
To come from yonder depth to aid our going." 1 3 2 
Then made be answer ; *' Nearer than thou hopest 



154 DANTE [Canto XXIII 

There lies a rock that from the greater girdle 
Moves out and crosses all the fearsome valleys, 1 3 5 
Save that at this 'tis broke, and does not span it. 
You will be able to mount up the ruin, 
That lies aslope, and towers from the bottom/' 1 3 8 
My leader stood awhile with head bent down- 
ward : 
Then said : '' A bad recounting of the business 
He made who over yonder hooks the sinners." 1 4 1 
The friar then : ** I heard once at Bologna 
O' the Devil faults enough, and heard among 

them. 
He is a liar, father of all falsehood.'* 144 

Then with great strides went on his way my 
leader, 
Somewhat disturbed with wrath in his 

appearance : 
Whereat I from the laden ones departed, 147 

After the footprints of the feet beloved. 



CANTO XXIV 

In that part of the stripHng year, when newly 
The Sun his locks beneath Aquarius tempers, 
And to the South the nights are now departing, 3 

What time upon the ground the hoar frost copies 
The very image of her own white sister — 
But little lasts the temper of her pencil — 6 

The peasant to whom provender is lacking 
Rises from bed, and looks, and sees the 

meadow 
All whitening ; whereat he beats his haunches, 9 

Returns indoors, goes to and fro, lamenting. 
Like a poor wretch what next to do not 

knowing ; 
Comes back, and hope once more puts in his 

basket, ' 1 2 

On seeing that the world has changed 
appearance 
In a few moments ; and his staff he fetches, 
And drives his little flock abroad to pasture. 1 5 

So did the master make me all bewildered. 
When I beheld his brow in such disturbance : 
And just as soon came to the hurt the plaster. 1 3 

For, as we came unto the wasted causeway, 

155 



156 



DANTE 



[Canto XXIV 



My leader turned to me with that sweet aspect, 
Which at the mountain foot I first had witnessed. 

His arms he opened, after counsel chosen 

Of some sort with himself, first well regarding 
The ruin, and he laid a grip upon me. 

And, hke a man who, labouring and thinking. 
Seems always in advance to make provision, 
So, as towards the crest he did uplift me 

Of one great rock, he marked another splinter. 
Saying : ** On that one be thy hold next 

fastened ; 
But try first if 'tis such that it will bear thee/' 

It was no road for one in leaden garment ; 
For scarcely we, he weightless, I with pushing, 
To mount aloft from grip to grip were ab!e. 

And, if it had not been that at that precinct 
The slope was shorter than upon the other — 
For him I know not — I had been quite beaten. 

But, since that Malebolge all slopes downward 
To the portal of the pit that liek the lowest. 
The site of every valley carries with it 

That one side drops, whereas the other rises. 
Howheit we came at last up on the summit 
From which the furthest rock is rent asunder. 

The breathing of my lungs was so exhausted, 
When I was up^ that I could fare no further : 
Therefore I sat me down at first arrival. 
''Thus mu§t thou ever shake off sloth henceforward ;*' 



24 



30 



33 



36 



39 



43 



45 



Canto XXIV] INFERNO 157 

The Master said, " for sitting upon feathers 

Man Cometh not to fame, nor under quilting ; 48 

Which lacking, whosoe'er consumes his life-time 
Leaves of himself on earth just such a vestige 
As smoke doth leave in air, and foam in water. 5 1 

And so do thou rise up, conquer the shortness 
Of breath with spirit that wins every battle. 
If with its heavy body it does not totter. 54 

Of longer stair must needs be now the climbing ; 
From these *tis not enough to have departed : 
If thou dost hear me, see that it avail thee.'* 57 

I rose up then, showing myself provided 

Better with breath than I had been aware of. 
And said : " Fare on, for I am strong and 

eager.*' 60 

We took our way over along the rock-spur. 
Which was uneven, difficult, and narrow. 
And steeper a good deal than the preceding. 63 

Talking I went on, not to seem enfeebled : 

And from the other ditch a voice there issued. 
For forming words articulate ill-suited. 66 

I know not what it said, though o'er the saddle 
O' the arch I was by this, that thereby crosses ; 
But whosoever spoke seemed moved to a.nger. 69 

I stood with downward look, but eyes of mortal 
Could not go through the dark unto the 

bottom ; 
Wherefore I : " Master, hasten, pray, thy coming 72 



158 



DANTE 



[Canto XXlV 



To the next circle, and the wall dismount we ; 

For, as from hence I hear, and understand not, 

So down I see, and nothing do I figure." 75 

' No other answer,** said he, "I return thee, 

Except to do it, for an honest asking 

Ought to be followed by the deed, in silence/' js 
The causeway we descended at the bridge-head, 

Whereat with the eighth bank it made its 
junction, 

And then before me lay the Valley open : Si 

And therewithin I saw a dire collection 

Of serpents, and of such a monstrous aspect 

That still the memory my blood doth curdle. 84 
Let Libya with her sand make boast no longer ; 

For, though she gender Jaculus, Chelydrus, 

Cenchris, and Pharea, and Amphisbaena, 87 

So many pestilences, or so deadly, 

She never showed, with Ethiopia added, 

Or that which lies beyond the Red Sea's waters. 90 
Amid that gruesome and most saddening plenty 

Were running naked folk and terror-stricken, 

Hopeless of heliotrope or of a crevice* 93 

They had their hands behind them bound with 
serpents : 

These same were through the loins their tail 
inserting, 

And head, and were in front tied up together. 96 
And lo ! on one who was beside our margin 



Canto XXIV] INFERNO 159 

Made sudden rush a serpent, and transfixed 

him, 
Just where the neck is knotted to the 

shoulders. 99 

Nor ' O * so quickly e'er, nor ' I,' was written, 
As he blazed up and burned ; and into ashes 
He, sinking down, must needs be all converted : 102 
Thus being on the ground in dissolution, 
The dust itself gathered itself together. 
And to himself reverted in an instant. 105 

So by the foremost sages is admitted 

That dies, and then is born again, the Phoenix, 
When she to the five hundredth year ap- 
proaches : 108 
Of herb or blade in life she makes not pasture, 
Only of tears of incense and amomum, 
And her last nest she makes of myrrh and 

spikenard. 1 1 1 

And as one is who falls, and how he knows not, 
By power of demon that to earth doth draw 

him, 
Or some occlusion else that binds men'j* 

bodies, 1 1 4 

Who, when he rises up, stares round about him, 
All in bewilderment at the great anguish 
That he has borne, and si|^ the while he 

gazes, m; 

Such was the snner who jtist tben h^ ri^^en. 



i6o 



DANTE 



[Canto XXIV 



Oh I power of God, how true thou art, that 

showerest 
Such awful blows by way of retribution. 
My guide demanded of him then who was he : 
Whereat: *' From Tuscany I rained/* he 
answered, 
" A short time since, into this fearsome swallow. 
A bestial life was my delight, not human ; 
As of the mule I was : I am Vanni Fucci ; 
A beast ; Pistoja was my worthy kenneh'* 
And to my leader I : " Bid him not shp us ; 
And ask what fault it was that down here 

thrust him : 
For a man of blood I saw him, and of passion/* 
The sinner, who had heard, did not dissemble, 
But set both mind and face direct towards me. 
And with the sense of dismal shame he 
coloured : 
Then said : "It grieves me more that thou hast 
caught me 
Here in the misery where thou dost see me, 
Than when I from the other life was taken : 
I cannot say thee Nay to what thou askest. 
I am sent down thus far for being a robber 
In the famed sacristy of splendid vestments : 
And falsely once 't was laid upon another. 

But, that thou may'st not at such sight 
rejoice thee, 



1 20 



123 



1 26 



129 



132 



U5 



t3S 



Canto XXIV] INFERNO i6i 

If e'er thou issues! from these gloomy regions, 141 
Now to my message ^ope thine ear, and hearken : 
' Firstly, of Blacks Rstoja groweth leaner ; 
Then Florence makes fresh stock of folk and 

customs; 144 

Mars draws a vapour from the vale of Magra, 
That with great clouds and turbid is 

enveloped ; 
And with impetuous and cruel tempest 147 

Over the Picene plain shall be a combat ; 

Whence it shall suddenly disperse the cloud- 
drift. 
So that therein shall every White be stricken.' 1 50 
This I have said because it needs must grieve thee." 



M 



CANTO XXV 

When he had made an end of words, the robber 
Upraised his hands with both the figs of 

insult, 
Crying out : *' Take it, God, at thee I square 

them/' 3 

Serpents have been endeared to me thenceforward ; 
For on his neck one coiled itself that moment, 
As who should say : " I let thee not speak 

further," 6 

And on his arms another, and fast bound him, 
Clinching itself in front in such a fashion. 
That even to give a jerk he could not use them. 9 
Pistoja ! Alas, Pistoja, why resolve not 
To turn to ashes, so to endure no longer ; 
Since in ill-doing thou thy seed surpassest ? i 2 

I saw through all the range of hell's dark circles 
No spirit so arrogant to God Almighty ; 
Not him who fell at Thebes down from the 

ramparts. 1 5 

He fled away, who no word more had spoken. 
And I beheld a Contaur, full of fury. 
Come crying aloud : *' Where is, where is, the 

scoffer ? '* 18 

162 



Canto XXV] INFERNO 163 

I do not think Maremma has of vipers 

So many as he had along his crupper, 

As far as where our aspect has beginning. 2 1 

And on his shoulders, backward from the neck-cup. 

With outspread wings there lay on him a dragon. 

Breathing out flame on whosoever meets it. 24 
My master said to me : *' He there is Cacus, 

Who, with the rock of Aventine for shelter, 

A lake of blood made times innumerable. 27 

He goes not with his brqthers in one pathway. 

By reason of the guileful theft he practised 

Of the great herd that there he had adjacent ; 30 
Wherefore his crooked doings had an ending 

Under the club of Hercules, which, haply. 

Gave him a hundred blows, and ten he felt 

not.'' 33 

While he was speaking thus, that one passed 
by us. 

And down below our feet there came three 
spirits, 

Of whom nor I took notice, nor my leader, 36 

Except when they cried out aloud : '' Who are 
ye ? - 

Whereby unto a halt came our discoursing ; 

And then we were intent on them entirely. 39 

I did not know them ; but it chanced to follow, 

As it is wont to follow, by some hazard, 

That one to name another had occasion, 42 



i64 



DANTE 



[Canto XXV 



Saying ^ " Wherever can be Cianfa staying ? " 
Wherefore I, that my guide might be 

attentive, 
From chin up to my nose did lay ray finger. 

If thou art slow, now, reader, at believing 
What I shall say, it will not be a marvel, 
For I, who saw it, scarcely do accept it. 

Bven as I kept my eyebrows raised towards them. 
Sudden, a serpent with six feet darts forward 
In front of one, and dings to all his body ; 

With its mid feet around the paunch it gripped 
him* 
And wit!^ its front ones held his anns in 

bondage ; 
Then did it bite his cheeks, one and the 
other ; 

The hinder feet along his thighs extended, 

And 'twixt them both thrusting its tail, and 

upward, 
Upon his back across the loins outspread it. 

Ivy was never fastened with its rootlets 

In such wise upon tree as the dread monster 
Entwined its own about the other*s members. 

Then, as of heated wax they had been, together 
They made adherency, and mixed their colour. 
Now seemed not what it was or one or other ; 

Just as before the burning there advance 
Along a paper upward a brown colour, 



45 



SI 



54 



S7' 



60 



63 



Canto XXV] INFERNO 165 

That is not black yet, and the white is d5dng. 66 
The other two were staring, and cried loudly 
Each one : " Alas ! Agnel, how thou art 

changing! 
Lo ! thou art neither two nor one already." 69 

The two heads were become already single, 
When there appeared two countenances 

mingled 
In one sole face, wherein were lost two 

persons. 72 

Of fourfold strips two single arms developed : 
The thighs, with them the legs, the chest and 

belly. 
Members became such as were not seen ever. 7 5 
Therein was broken every primal aspect : 

Two, and yet none, did seem the form 

perverted. 
And such-like went its way with sluggish 

footsteps. 78 

Even as the giant lizard, changing hedgerow 
Beneath the scourge tremendous of the dog- 
days, 
Looks like a lightning flash across the roadway, 8 1 
Just such did seem, coming towards the 
paunches 
Of th' other two, a little fiery serpent, 
Livid and black as is a grain of pepper : 84 

And in that part, wherefrom at first is taken 



i66 



DANTE 



[Canto XXV 



Our aliment, one of the two it spitted : 
Then it fell down in front of him extended. 
The spitted gazed upon it, but said nothing ; 
Nay, rather^ with arrested feet, gan yawning, 
Just as if sleep or fever had assailed him. 
He at the serpent stared, at him the serpent ; 
One by the wound, and by the mouth the 

other, 
Smoked mightily, and both the smokes 
commingled. 
Henceforth be Lucan dumb, there where he 
touches 
Upon Nassidius, and the poor Sabellus, 
And wait to hear what now comes from the 
bowstring ; 
Ovid on Cadmus dumb and Arethusa : 

For, if to serpent him, and her to fountain, 
He turns in poesy, no grudge I bear him : 
For he ne*er, brow to brow, made metamorphose 
Of natures twain, so that both forms were 

ready 
To make exchange of their material substance. 
They mutually responded in such fashion, 

The serpent clave his tail and spread it fork- 

vnse ; 
The smitten one closed up his soles together ; 
The legs, with them the thighs, at the mere 
contact 



87 



90 



93 



96 



99 



103 



105 



Canto XXV] INFERNO 167 

Made such adherency that sojn the juncture 

Did make no sign at all that was apparent : 108 

The cloven tail took to itself the figure 

That there was being lost ; and on it supple 
Became the skin, and hard that of the other. 1 1 1 

I saw the arms go inward by the armpits, 

And two feet, that were short upon the 

monster, 
Lengthen in like proportion as those 

shortened. 114 

And then the hinder feet, twisted together, 
Became the member that a man keeps hidden : 
And the poor wretch for his had two feet 

sprouting. 117 

While as the smoke in veils with a new colour 
One and the other, and on one hand causes 
The hair to grow, and on the other plucks it, 1 20 

One raised himself erect ; down fell the other ; 
Albeit diverting not their orbs ungodly, 
Beneath the which each one was changing 

muzzle. 123 

He who was upright drew it towards the temples, 
And, from the excess of substance that came 

thither, 
Forth of the even cheeks the ears did issue. 126 

That which did not run back, and kept position, 
Made on the face a nose out of that surplus, 
And swelled the lips as much as it was needful. 1 2 9 



i68 



DANTE 



[Canto XXV 



The one that lay chases the muzzle forward, 
And makes the ears within the head to enter, 
Even as doth the snail his horns at pleasure : 
The tongue, that he had single, and for speaking 
Ready before, is cloven ; and in the other 
The forked one closes up j and the smoke 
ceases. 
The soul that to a brute had been converted 
Fled, hissing as it went, along the valley ; 
And after him the other talks and sputters- 
Then upon him he turned his new-made 
shoulders, 
And to the third said ; ''I will have Buoso 

scamper, 
As I did, on his belly along this pathway/' 
So did I see the seventh load of ballast 

Make change and counterchange. And here 

the newness 
Be my excuse, if my pen bungles somewhat. 
And, albeit it befell that in some measure 
Confused my eyes were, and my mind 

embarrassed, 
They could not flee away so surely hidden 
But that I noted well Puccio Sciancato : 
And he it was, alone of the three comrades 
Who came at first, that was not changed. 
The other 
Was he, GavUle^ for whose sake thou meanest. 



13^ 



135 



138 



141 



144 



147 



ISO 



CANTO XXVI 

Florence, rejoice, for that thoa art so mighty 
That over sea and over land thou flappest 
Thy pinions, and throng^ hell thy name is 

widespread. 3 

Among the thieves five found I of such notice 
Thy citizens, whence shame becomes my portion. 
And thou dost not thereby climb to great 

honour. 6 

But, if one dreameth of the truth near morning, 
Thou wilt in httle time from now be ware of 
What Prato wishes thee, not to say others : 9 

And were it even now, 'twere not too early : 
Would that it were, since that it surely must 

be! 
For 'twill lie heavier with my years increasing. 1 2 
Hence we departed, and by the same staircase 
The jutting stones had made for first 

descending f r^ 

My leader mounted up again, and drew me. 1 5 

And, following along the lonely pathway. 
Between the ridges of the spur and boulders. 
The foot without the hand could make no 

progress. 18 

169 



170 



DANTE 



[Canto XXVI 



Then sorrowed I, and now afresh I sorrow* 
When I direct niy mind to what I witnessed. 
And bridle more than is my wont my genius, 21 

Lest it should run where virtue doth not guide it ; 
So that, if kindly star, or something better, 
Gave me that boon, I may not grudge the 

blessing. 34 

As many as are the fireflies that the rustiCp 
Resting upon the hill, when he who lightens 
Our world doth keep his face less hidden from us, 2 7 

And when the fly gives place to the mosquito, 
Sees flitting down below him through the valley. 
Where he, perchance, doth plough or gather 

vintage, 30 

With flames as manifold was the Eighth Valley 
All in resplendency, as I distinguished 
As soon as I was where the depth lay open. 33 

As he who with the bears did wreak his 
vengeance 
Beheld Elijah's car at his departure, 
What time straight up to heaven the horses 

mounted, 36 

Which with his eyes he had not power to follow 
So as to see aught else but the flam£ only, 
In likeness of a cloudlet, rising upward, 

So through the gullet of the pit was moving 
Each one ; for none the stolen soul discloses, 
And every flame is bearing of! a sinner. 




Canto XXVI] INFERNO 171 

I stood upon the bridge, erect and gazing, 
So that, had I not grasped a knob that jutted, 
I should have fallen, even with no one pushing. 4 5 
And said my guide, who so intent observed me, 
" Within the fires thou seest are the spirits : 
Each is wrapt round with that wherewith he 

blazes." 4« 

' Dear Master,'* I replied, " for that I hear thee, 
I am more sure, but had already fancied 
That so it was ; and wished to ask already : 5 1 

Who is within that fire that comes so cloven. 
On top, that from the pyre it seems ascending 
Where Eteocles lay beside his brother ? " 54 
He answered me : *' There are within in torment 
Diomed and Ulysses : and together, • 
As once to wrath, so now they go to 

vengeance. 5 7 

Within the flame of them there is lamented 
The ambush of the horse that made the porta) 
Whereout the noble seed of Romans issued : oo 
Within is the device bemoaned whence comes it 
That Deidamia dead still mourns Achilles : 
And there the doom is borne of Pallas' image." 6 3 
If they within those sparks have power of 
speaking, 
Master," I said, ** I earnestly do pray thee, 
And - pray^ again — be the prayer worth a 

thousand — 66 



%f9 



DANTE 



[Canto XXVI 



Thou do not make denial to my staying 

Until the hom^d flame shall have come 

hither : 
Thou seest that with desire I lean towards it." 
And he to me : " This prayer of thine is 
worthy 
Of greatest praise, and I accept it therefore. 
But that thy tongue contain itself be careful : 
Leave me to speak, for I have apprehended 
What thou desir'st : for they would, per- 
adventure, I 

For they were Greeks, of speech of thine be 
scornful.'^ 
When as the flame had come within such 
distance 
That time and place seemed fitting to my 

leader, 
I heard him speaking in such form as follows : 
*' Oh ! ye, who twain within one fire are faring^ 
If I deserved well of you while still living. 
If I deserved well of you, much or little, 
When in the world I wrote the lofty verses, 
Stir not, but one of you be pleased to tell us 
Whither he went to die by his own losing," 
The greater horn upon that flame most ancient 
Began with noise of murmuring to flicker. 
Even as doth a flame the wind makes weary : 
Then, waving to and fro its tip, in fashion 



69 



7^ 



75 



7S 



gi 



84 




Canto XXVT] INFERNO 



173 



As if the very tongue itself were speaking, 
Cast forth of it a voice, and said : '* From 
Circe 

When that I had departed, who withheld me 
More than a year there yonder, by Gaeta, 
(Before i^neas by that name had called it,) 

Nor sweetness of my son, nor filial duty 
To my old father, nor the love I owed her 
That should have made Penelope still happy. 

Could overcome within my breast the ardour 
I had to win experience world-embracing, 
As well of human vices as of virtue ; 

But out upon the open deep I put me. 

Alone, with but one bark, and those 

companions 
So few, by whom I never was deserted* 

One and the other shore — far as Morocco, 

And far as Spain — I saw, the Sardians' island, 
And the others which that sea around doth 
water. 

I and my comrades aJl were old and laggard, 
What time we came unto that narrow gullet 
Where Hercules himself set up his landmarks, 

For signal so that none should put out further. 
On my right hand I left behind me Seville ; 
Ceuta had left already on the other. 
' brothers,' said I, ' who through hundred 
thousands 



$>o 



9S 



96 



99 



1 03 



105 



108 



II t 



^4 



DANTE 



[Canto XXVI 



Of perils now at last have reached the Sunset, 
To this so very short a time of vigil, 

This only remnant left unto your senses, 
Do not deny experience oi seeing, 
In the sun's wake, the world devoid of people : 

Consider ye the seed that ye are sprung from : 
Ye were not made to live as the brute 

creatures, 
But that ye virtue might pursue and 
knowledge/ 

Those comrades mine I made so sharply eager. 
With this sg short oration, for the Journey »,. 
That hardly, aiterwards, could I have held . 
* them. 

And, with our stem directed to the morning, 
Of oars for our wild flight we made us pinions, 
Always upon the left hand somewhat gaining. 

Now all the stars of the other pole already 
I saw by night, and oius at such low level 
It did not rise out of the plain of ocean. 

Five times beneath the moon had been rekindled 
The light, and been as many times extinguished. 
After that we on the deep pass had entered. 

When there appeared to us a mountain darkling 
By reason of the distance ; and so lofty 
It seemed as I had never seen another. 

We cheered our hearts j and soon it turned to 
weeping ; 



114I 



117I 



1231 



126 ( 



129 



13a 



»35 



Canto XXVI] INFERNO 175 

For from the new found land arose a whirl- 
wind, 
And smote upon the forepart of the vessel : 138 
Three times it made it spin with all the waters ; 
At the fourth time it made the stern lift 

upward, 
And made the prow go down, as pleased 

Another, 141 

Until the sea had closed again above us." 



CANTO XXVII 



And now the flame was still and pointing 
upward 
From saying no^more, and going its way 

already 
From us, with Ucense of the gentle poet ; 
When lo ! another one, that came behind it, 
Caused us towards its tip to turn our vision 
By a confused sound that issued from it. 
As the Sicihan buD, whence the first bellow 
Was even the moan of him — and that was 

rightful — 
Who with his file himself had given it temper, 
So bellowed with the voice of the imprisoned 
That, notwithstanding it was only brazen, 
It seemed, nathless, to be pierced through 
with dolour ; 
So, from not having any way or issue 

Out from their fiery source, into its language 
The melancholy words became converted. 
But, after that their pathway they had chosen 
Up through the point, giving it that vibration 
The tongue itself had given them in their 
passage, 

l?4 



Canto XXVII] INFERNO 177 

This we heard said : ** Oh ! thou to whom 1 
order 
My voice, and who just now wert speaking 

Lombard, 
Saying, * Now go thy way, no more I urge 

thee,* 21 

Tho' I, perchance, am somewhat late arriving, 
To stay to speak with me let it not irk thee : 
Thou seest it irks me not, and I am burning. 24 
If into this blind world this moment only 

From that sweet Latin country thou art 

fallen, 
Wherefrom I bring my guilt wholly unshriven, 27 
Say, have they war or peace now in Romagna ? 
For I was of the hills there 'twixt Urbino 
And the high ridge where Tiber breaks from 

prison." 30 

I downwardly was still intent and stooping, 
When lightly on my side my leader pressed 

me, 
Sa5dng : "Do thou speak now ; this one is 

Latin.*' 33 

And I, who had the answer prompt already. 

Without delaying gan to speak in this wise : 
" Oh ! soul, who there below from sight art 

hidden, 36 

Thy dear Romagna is not, and was never. 

Exempt from war within her tyrants' bosoms ; 

N 



178 DANTE [Canto XXVII 

But open I left none there now behind me. 39 

Ravenna stands as she hath stood this long time : 
The eagle of Polenta broods above her, 
So that it covers Cervia with its pinions. 42 

The land which once endured the weary trial, 
And made a gory heap of all the Frenchmen, 
Once more is in the grip of the Green Talons ; 45 
The old Mastiff, and the yoimg one of 
Vemicchio, 
Who wrought that evil usage of Montagna, 
Where they were wonted, make their teeth 

an auger. 48 

The cities of Lamone and of Santemo 

The Lion's whelp with the white nest doth 

govern. 
Who changes sides from summer-time to 

winter. 51 

And yonder town wHose flank the Savio waters. 
Just as she lies between the plain and 

mountain, 
Lives between t3n:anny and free condition. 54 

Now who thou art I pray thee that thou tell us : 
Be not thou more obdurate than were others : 
So may thy name i' the world hold up its 

forehead." 57 

After the fire had made some little roaring 
In its own fashion, the sharp point gan 
quiver 



Canto XXVII] INFERNO 179 

This way and that, and then gave breath 

in this wise : 60 

*' If I beUeved that my reply were given 

To one who might the world, someday, revisit, 
This flame would stay at rest without more 

flutter. 63 

But, forasmuch as from this depth none ever 
Did make return alive, if I hear truly. 
Fearless of infamy I give thee answer. 66 

I was a man of arms, then corded friar, 

Thinking that I, thus girt, would make 

atonement. 
And, of a truth, my trust approached 

fulfilment, 69 

Were't not for the chief priest— may evil take 
him — 
Who set me back into my first transgression : 
And how and why, I would that thou 

should' st hear me. 72 

While I was still the form of bone and tissue 
Of which my mother made me gift, my 

doings. 
Were worthy of the fox, not of the lion. 7 5 

Sapping and mining and intelligencing, 

I knew them all, and so their craft had 

practised 
That to the ends of earth the sound had issued. 78 
When as I saw that I had reached the portion 



DANTE [Canto XXVII 



Of my life's course where every man should 

fitly 
Lower the sails and stow away the tackle, 
What at the first had pleased me then was 
irksome. 
Repentant and confessing, I took orders : — 
Oh, hapless wretch ! and I should have 
found succour. 
The chief of the new Pharisees, on finding 
Hard by the Lateran a war approaching, 
(And not with Saracens, nor yet with Hebrews, 
For every enemy of his was Christian, 

And none had ever been to conquer Acre, 
Or merchandizing in the Soldan's country,) 
Nor in himself regarded highest office. 
Or sacred orders, nor in me that halter 
Which once was wont to make its girt ones 
leaner : 
But, just as Const an tine within Soracte, 
To cure his leprosy sought out Silvester, 
So did he seek me out to be his master 
To cure him of his overweening fever* 

Counsel he asked of me, and I was silent, 
Because his words appeared to be unsober : 
And then he said to me : ' Let thy heart 
doubt not : 
Henceforth I absolve thee : now do thou 
instruct me 



Canto XXVII] INFERNO i8i 

How I may raze the walls of Palestrina. 102 

I can unlock and lock the door of heaven. 

As thou well knowest : for the keys are 

twofold. 
The which my predecessor held not precious.' 105 
Then did his weighty arguments impel me 
To where, meseemed, silence was worse than 

speaking. 
And I said : ' Father, since that thou dost 

wash me 108 

Clean from that sin which now I needs must 
fall in. 
Long promises with shortness of fulfilment 
Will make thee trimnph in the chair exalted.' 1 1 1 
Then afterwards, when I was dead, came Francis 
For me ; but one of the black demon-cherubs 
Said to him, ' Take him not ; nay, do not 

wrong me: 114 

He must come off below among my minions, 
Because he rendered the dishonest coimsel ; 
Since when till now I have been beside his 

earlocks : 117 

For who repents not cannot be forgiven ; 
Nor can a man repent and will together. 
Because the contradiction stands against it.' 120 
Oh, wretched me ! how mightily I shuddered, 
When he laid hold on me, saying to me, 
' Haply 



i82 DANTE [Canto XXVII 

Thou didst not think that I was a logician.' 123 
To Minos then he bore me off, who twisted 
Eight times his tail upon his back unyielding ; 
And after biting it in a great fury, 126 

Said, ' He is for the thievish fire a culprit:' 
For which cause I am lost here where thou 

seest, 
And go thus clothed upon, my doom 

lamenting." 1 29 

When in such wise he had his speech completed. 
The flame departed dolorous and writhing. 
And beating to and fro its horn sharp- 
pointed. 132 
We passed, both I and my conductor, further 
Along the spur as far as the next archway. 
That spans the ditch wherein is paid the 

forfeit 1 3 5 

By those who earn their load by disuniting. 



CANTO XXVIII 

Even with wards unfettered, who could ever 
Tell of the blood and of the wounds with fullness 
That I now saw, though many times narrating ? 3 
All tongues of men would fall far short, of 
surety. 
By reason of our speech and imderstanding. 
Which have scant bosom for such com- 
prehension. 6 
If all the folk to-day made one assembly 
Who on ApuUa's soil, chosen of fortune, 
In time of old were mourners of their life- 
blood, 9 
Shed by the Trojans, or i* the long campaigning 
That brought so high a pile of rings for booty, 
As Livy hath recorded (and he errs not) ; 1 2 
With all the folk who felt distress of smiting 
By reason of withstanding Robert Guiscard ; 
And those, beside, whose bones may still be 

gathered 1 5 

At Ceperan, where each Apulian showed him 
Faithless ; or there again by Tagliacozzo, 
Where without weapons old Alardo con- 
quered ; X 8 

X83 



i84 DANTE [Canto XXVIII 

And this should show his Hmb transpierced, and 
that one 

His Hmb lopped off, naught would it be to 
equal 

The loathsome spectacle of the Ninth Valley. 21 
Never a cask, from losing mid- or side-piece, 

Is riven so utterly as one I noticed, 

Burst from the chin right to the lower passage : 24 
Between the legs were hanging down the 
entrails ; 

The pluck was showing, and the bag repulsive 

That turns whatever is swallowed into ordure. 27 
While I with all my might am set to see him. 

He stared at me, and with his hands he opened 

His bosom, sa5dng : ** See now, how I tear 

me ; 30 

See in what manner Mahomet is mangled : 

Ali there goes his way before me, weeping. 

Cleft in the face from chin unto the forelock. ^^ 
And all the rest of those whom here thou seest. 

When living, were the so wers of dissension 

And schism ; and therefore in this wise are 

cloven. 36 

A devil is here behind, who doth adjust us 

In such a cruel sort, anew subjecting 

Each of this ream to the sword's edge, as often 39 
As we have circled round the doleful roadway ; 

By reason that the wounds are re-united 



Canto XXVIII] INFERNO ' 185 

Ere any one may pass again before him : 42 

But who art thou who on the rock-spur peerest, 
Perchance with purpose to delay in going 
To the doom adjudged upon thine own 

indictments ?" 45 

' Nor death hath reached him yet/* my master 
answered, 
'* Nor guilt doth bring him to be here tormented, 

But, full experience to bestow upon him, 48 

On me, who am dead, is laid the task to bring 
him 
Through hell down here from circle unto circle : 
And this is true, as I to thee am speaking." 5 1 

More than five score there were who, when they 
heard him. 
Stopped in the pit their course to gaze upon 

me. 
Forgetting in amaze their sore affliction. 54 

Tell Fra Dolcino, then, to make equipment. 
Thou who, perhaps, wilt shortly see the 

sunlight. 
Unless he seeks to follow me soon hither, 5 7 

Of food-store in such wise that a deep snowfall 
Bring not the victory to the Novaran, 
Which otherwise to achieve were no light 

matter.** 60 

With one foot lifted ready to go forward. 
Did Mahomet deHver me this message ; 



i86 DANTE [Canto XXVIII 

Then on the ground he fixed it for departing. 63 

Another, with a sword-thrust through his gullet, 

With nose lopped off close underneath the 
eyebrows, 

Who had not more than one ear only left him, 66 
Sta5dng behind to gaze in his amazement 

With all the rest, before the rest set open 

His pipe, which outwardly was all vermiUon : 69 
And thus he said : " O thou whom guilt 
condemns not. 

And whom I saw above in Latin country. 

Unless too great resemblance doth deceive 

me, 72 

Recall to mind Peter of Medicina, 

If ever that sweet plain thou dost revisit. 

That slopes to Marcabb down from Vercelli : 7 5 
And make thou known to two of Fano*s noblest, 

To Messer Guido, and Angiolello also, 

That, if foreseeing here is not all idle, 78 

They will be cast adrift from out their vessel, 

And bound in sack with stone, near La 
Cattolica, 

By the betrayal of a felon tyrant. 81 

Between the isles of Cyprus and Majorca 

Never did Neptune see a crime so monstrous, 

Nor wrought by pirates, nor by folk Argolic. 84 

That traitor, he who sees with one eye 
only. 



Canto XXVIII] INFERNO 187 

And holds the land which one now here beside 

me 
Would fain have fasted to this day from 

seeing, 87 

Will make them come to hold a parley with 
him, 
Then make such work as 'gainst Focara's 

tempest 
Will make no need for them of prayer or 

offering." 90 

And I to him : '* Point out and tell me plainly, 
If thou would'st have me take up news about 

thee. 
Which is the one of the embittered vision ? *' 93 
With that upon the jaw of one, his comrade, 
His hand he laid, and set his mouth wide 

open. 
Crying out, " This is he ; no word he utters. 96 
He is it who, an exile, whelmed the doubting 
In Caesar's breast, maintaining that, once 

ready, 
Alway with loss a man did suffer waiting.*' 99 

Oh ! how he seemed to me to be bewildered, 
There, with the tongue cut short within his 

throttle. 
Curio, who in speaking was so hasty. 102 

And one, who had one hand and the other 
wanting. 



i88 DANTE [Canto XXVIII 

The crippled stumps through that mirk air 

uplifting 
So that the dripping blood made his face 

loathsome, " ids 

Cried : *' Thou wilt surely, too, remember 
Mosca, 
Who said, ah me ! 'A thing that's done is 

over : ' 
Which was to Tuscan folk a seed of evil." io8 
Then added I : " And to thy clan death- 
warrant : " 
Whereat he, heaping sorrow up with sorrow, 
Went on his way, like one distraught with 

sadness. 1 1 1 

But I remained, that multitude regarding, 
And saw a thing such that I should be fearful 
Without more proof so much as to recount it, 114 
Were it not that my conscience doth assure me. 
The good ally that every man emboldens 
With sense of innocency for his breastplate. 117 
Certain I saw — and still I seem to see it — 
A trunk without a head go in like manner 
The others of the mournful flock were going : 120 
And the lopped head 'twas holding by the 
tresses. 
Swung with the hand in fashion of a lantern : 
And that looked hard at us, " Woe 's me " 
repeating. 123 



Canto XXVIII] INFERNO 189 

He made himself a lamp for his own using. 
And they were two in one, one in two also : 
How it can be. He knows who so ordains it. 126 

When it had come right midemeath our 
archway, 
Its arm, the head along with it, it hfted. 
So as to make its words come closer to us : 129 

Which were : " Behold the punishment 
distressing. 
Thou who dost pass, viewing the dead, and 

breathest : 
See if there any is as great as this is. 132 

And that thou may'st bear tidings of me yonder, 
Know I am Bertram, hight of Born, who 

rendered 
To the young king the help of evil counsel. 1 3 5 
I set at mutual war the son and father. 
Achitophel did not do more by David 
And Absalom with his perfidious goadings. 1 38 

For that I parted persons joined so closely, 
Even so, alas, I bear my own brain parted 
From its first source, which in this trunk 

continues. 1 4 1 

Thus hath the counterstroke in me observance.*' 



CANTO XXIX 

The folk so many, and the wounds so diverse 
Had in such sort my orbs of sight made drunken 
That they were fain to fall to idle weeping. 3 

But Virgil said to me : " Pray, what dost stare at ? 
Why does thy vision nothing find to rest on 
Save down among the dismed shades dis- 
membered ? 6 
Thou did'st not do so in the other Valleys. 
Consider, if thou hast a mind to reckon, 
That two and twenty miles this valley circles : 9 
The moon is underneath our feet already ; 
The time is short that still to us is granted. 
And there is more to see than what thou 

seesf 12 

'* Hadst thou given heed," I made him answer 
straightway, 
*' Unto the reason wherefor I was gazing, 
Perchance thou hadst allowed me stay yet 

longer." i s 

Meanwhile my guide went on, and I behind him 
Was following, making my reply already. 
And adding furthermore : " Within that 

hollow, 1 8 

190 



Canto XXIX] INFERNO 191 

Where I was keeping thus mine eyes on sentry, 
I think a spirit of my blood is moaning 
The guilt that there below doth cost so dearly." 2 1 
Then said my master : " Let not from hence- 
forward 
Thy thought expend itself for naught upon him ; 
Heed other things, and leave him there 

remaining ; 24 

For at the gangway-foot I saw him pointing 
Thee out, and shaking angrily his finger, 
And heard him called by name Geri del Bello. 27 
Thou wast just then so utterly entangled 
With him who of old time held Altaforte, 
Thou didst not look that way till he departed." 30 
' Oh ! leader mine, the violent death he suffered, 
Which he not yet hath had avenged," I 
answered, 
'* By any one who in the shame is partner, 33 

Made him . disdainful ; wherefore, without 
speaking 
To me, he went his way : so I explain it : 
And therein hath he won still more my pity." 36 
Thus did we speak, as far along the rock-spur 
As the first place that shows the other valley, 
If more of Hght there were, all to the bottom. 39 
When as we were upon the utmost cloister 
Of Malebolge, so that its lay brethren 
Could come within the compass of our eyesight, 42 



192 



DANTE 



[Canto XXIX 



There shot against me divers lamentations, 
Which had their arrows tipped at point with 

pity ; 

Wherefore I with my hands my ears did cover. 45 ] 
Such as, if from July until September 

From dl the hospitals of Valdlchiana^ 

And of Sardinia, and of Maremma, ^n\ 

The ailments in one fosse were all together, 

The dole would be, was here : and such stench 
issued 

As there is wont to issue from limbs gangrened. 5 1 \ 
So we came down upon the last embankment 

From the long rock-spur, bearing still to 
leftward ; 

And then my sense of vision was more lively 54 
Down towards the bottom, where unfailing justice. 

The handmaid of the Lord Most High, doth 
punish 

The counterfeiters who are here recorded, S7j 

I do not think a sight of greater sadness 

Was the whole people ailing in ^Egina — 

What time the very air so teemed with malice 
That, even to smallest worms, the living creatures 

All perished ; and the ancient folk thereafter 

(Following what the poets hold authentic) 
Gat restoration from the seed of emmets — 

Than was to see throughout that darksome 
valley 



Canto XXIX] INFERNO 193 

In diverse stooks the languid spirits drooping. 66 
This on the belly, that upon the shoulders, 
One of another lay ; and this one, crawling^ 
Changed his position on the dismal pathway. 69 
Without a word we step by step went onward, 
Gazing and listening to the sickly wretches, 
Who had not strength to raise their ghostly 

bodies. 72 

I saw two sitting propped against each other, 
As a pan is propped against a pan for 

warming, 
Spotted from head to foot with scabby 

blotches. . 75 

And never curry-comb did I see wielded 
In hand of groom expected by his master. 
Or one who all unwillingly keeps vigil, 78 

As each of them upon himself was plying 
The bite of his own nails in that wild frenzy 
Of itching that can find no other succour. 81 

And in such wise the nails the scabs were 
stripping 
As doth a knife the scales upon a mullet, 
Or other fish that, haply, hath them larger. 84 

" O thou who with thy fingers art unpicking 
Thy mail," to one of them began my leader, 
" And makest of them pincers on occasion, 87 

Tell us if any Latin is among them 

Who herewithin do bide : so may suffice thee 



194 



DANTE 



[Canto XXIX 



Thy nail etemaUy for this its labour/' go| 

** Latins are we, whom thou dost see thus wasted, 
Here both of us :" one of them answered, 
weeping, 
'* But who art thou that put test us such 

question ? '* 
And said my guide : '' I am one who am 
descending 
With this live man^ from ledge to ledge down 

hither ; 
And to show hell to him is my intention/' 
At that the mutual support was broken ; 

And each one turned himself toward me, 

tremblmg, 

With others who had heard him in re-echo. 99 

My gentle master came close up beside me. 
Saying : " Say thou to them whatever thou 

wishest," 
And I began J seeing that he so w^illed it : 
'* So may your memory not take flight and vanish. 
In the first world, from ken of minds of 

mortals. 
But under many suns continue Uving, 
Say to me who ye are, and of w^hat peoples : 
Let not your doom, so shocking and so 

irksome, 
Deter you from revealing what I ask you/' 
** Arezzo was my city," one made answer ; 



Canto XXIX] INFERNO 195 

" Albert of Siena to the stake despatched me : 
But that for which I died brings me not hither. 1 1 1 

True 'tis that, speaking as in jest, I told him 
That I could raise myself in air by flying : 
And he, who had small wit and idle fancies, 1 1 4 

Would have me show the art to him ; and, solely 
That Daedalus I did not make him, made me 
Be burned by one who stood to him as father. 1 1 7 

But to the furthermost of the ten Valleys 
For alchemy, that in the world I practised, 
Minos, who may not make mistake, con- 
demned me.'* 120 

And to the bard I said : ** Now were there ever 
Such empty-pated folk as those of Siena ? 
Certainly not the French folk by a long way." 123 

Whereat the other leprous one who heard me 
Made answer to my saying : " Excepting 

Stricca, 
Who knew the way to spend in moderation, 126 

And Nicholas, who was the first inventor 
Of using cloves in that expensive fashion 
r the garden where such kind of seed is 

rooted : 129 

Except, too, the brigade among whom squandered 
Caccia d'Ascian his vineyard and great forest. 
And Abbagliato made such waste of wisdom. 1 3 2 

But, so that thou may'st know who thus supports 
thee 



196 DANTE [Canto XXIX 

'Gainst those of Siena, whet thine eye towards 

me, 
So that my face may make thee a good 

answer : 135 

I am Capocchio's shade, thou wilt discover : 
By chymic art I counterfeited metals : 
And thou must recollect, if I well eye thee, 138 

How that I was an excellent ape of nature.'* 



CANTO XXX 

In time of old, when Juno's wrath was kindled 
For Semele, against the Theban household, 
As time and time again she manifested, 3 

King Athamas became so sore demented 

That, as he saw his wife with two young 

children 
Go, laden on either hand with such sweet 

burden, 6 

He cried : " Let us set nets, that I may take 
them, 
The lioness and young Hons, at the passage :" 
And then his talons pitiless extended, 9 

Laying hold of one, who had for name Learchus, 
And wheeled him round, and on a rock he 

smote him : 
And straight she drowned herself with the 

other burden. 1 2 

And, when the wheel of fortune had brought 
under 
The Trojans' eminence that ventured all things. 
So that the realm and king were broke 

together, 1 5 

Hecuba, wretched, sorrowful, and captive, 



198 DANTE [Canto XXX 

After she saw Polyxena in death-throe, 

And when she recognised her Polydorus 18 

L5dng upon the sea-beach, in her dolour. 
Bereft of senses, Uke a dog gan barking : 
So much had grief her understanding wrested. 2 1 

But neither Theban furies, nor yet Trojan, 
Were ever seen in any one so cruel, 
In goading beasts, and still less human 

members, 24 

As in two shades I saw, livid and naked. 

That, snapping, ran about in the same manner 

As doth a hog for which the sty is opened. 27 

One reached Capocchio, and set its tushes 

Upon the jointing of his neck, and dragged him, 
Rasping his belly on the solid pavement. 30 

And the Aretine, who had not ceased from 
trembling, 
Said : ** That hobgoblin there is Gianni 

Schicchi ; 
And thus he goes, rabid, and mangles others." 33 

Oh ! ** said I to him : ** so may not the other 
Fix in thy back its teeth, let it not tire thee 
To say who is it, ere it hence hath flitted.*' 36 

And he to me : '' That is a soul of old time, 
Of wicked Myrrha, who unto her father. 
Outside of lawful love, became a lover. 39 

She came to sin with him in the like manner. 
By counterfeiting of another's figure, 



Canto XXX] INFERNO 199 

As the other, who goes yonder, took upon 

him, 42 

Claiming the lady of the stud for wages, 
Himself to counterfeit Buoso Donati, 
Making a will with formal attestation." 45 

And after the two rabid ones had passed us, 
On whom my eye I had held fixed, I turned it 
To gaze upon the rest of the ill-fated. 48 

I saw one, as it were, made in lute-fashion. 
If only he had had his groinward region 
Lopped at the part which man hath 

bifurcated. 5 1 

Burdensome dropsy, that so disproportions 
The members with the humour ill converted 
That face with belly hath no correspondence, 54 

Wrought upon him to keep his Ups wide open ; 
As doth the hectic who, in thirsty torment. 
Turns one towards the chin, the other upward. 57 

O ye, who without any pain soever 

Are in the woful world, and why I know not," 
Said he to us, " look, and give full attention 60 

Unto the misery of Master Adam. 

I had, alive, enough of that I wanted ; 

And now, alas ! I crave a drop of water. 63 

The little brooks that from the Casentino 
Adown its green hillsides run into Amo, 
Making their channels cool and moist beneath 

them, 66 



MO 



DANTE 



[Canto XXX 



Stand ever in my sight — nor vain the vision ! 

For far more thoroughly their image dries me 

Than this disease that wastes away my 

features. 6g 

Justice unbending, that assigns my trial, 

Takes from the place wherein I sinned 
occasion 

To put my sighs in flight in greater measure. 72 
There is Romena, where I counterfeited 

The mintage with the impress of the Baptist : 

Wherefore I left my hody up there in cinders. js 
But, could I here behold the souls unhappy 

Of Guide, or Alexander, or their brotherSp 

I would not give the sight for Branda's 

fountain. 7 a 

Herein is one already, if the rabid 

Shades that are going all around speak truly. 

What boots it me, who have my limbs in 

trammels ? %t\ 

Were I so nimble still that I was able 

In a hundred years to go but one inch only, 

I had put myself already on the pathway S4 

In search for him among this folk so shocking ; 

For all it is eleven miles in circuit. 

And nowhere less than half a mile across it. 87 
*Tis by their doing I am in such household : 

*Twas they who led me on to strike the florins 

That had in them three carats of base metal," go 



I 




Canto XXX] INFERNO 201 

And I to him : " Who are the pair of abjects 
That smoke just Hke a moistened hand in 

winter, 
Lying close pressed beside thy right-hand 

borders ? " 93 

Here found I them — and since they have made 
no movement — 
What time I rained into this chasm," he 

answered, 
" Nor do I think they will for everlasting. 9b 

One is the woman, Joseph's false accuser : 
A Greek of Troy the other, the false Sinon : 
So foul a reek they cast from their sharp 

fever." 99 

And one of them, who took it, peradventure. 
As insult to be named in such dark fashion. 
Smote with his fist upon his paunch of leather, 1 02 
Which, even as it had been a drum, resounded. 
And Master Adam smote him on the visage 
With his forearm, which did not seem less solid; i o 5 
Saying: ** Though power to move is taken from me. 
By reason of my members which are heavy, 
I have my arm unfettered for such business." 1 08 
Whereat he answered : ** What time thou wast 
going 
Unto the stake thou hadst it not so ready. 
But so and more thou hadst when thou wast 

coining." 1 1 1 



2oa 



DANTE 



[Canto XXX 



To him the dropsied : " Therein sayest thou 
truly J 
But thou wast not at all so true a witness. 
When thou wast asked in Troy to give true 
answer/* 
If I spake falsely, thou didst make false 
coinage ;' 
Said Sinon, '* I am here for one fault only, 
And thou for more than any other demon," 
Recall to mind the horse, thou perjured liar/' 
Answered the one who had his paunch 
inflated, 
' ' And be thy ill that all the world doth know it/' 
And be thy ill the thirst, wherefrom is cracking 
Thy tongue/' replied the Greek, " and the foul 

water 
That thus before thy eyes piles up thy 
belly/* 
At that the one of money : " Thus gapes open 
Thy mouth, as is its wont, but to speak evil* 
For, if I am athirst, and humour bloats me. 
Thou hast thy burning and thy head that pains 
thee, 
And to lick up the mirror of Narcissus 
Would'st not need many words of invitation/' 
On listening to them I was set entirely. 

When said the Master to me : ''Go on staring ! 
For but a little, and I quarrel with thee/* 



iJ4l 



117 



120 



123 



126 



129 



J 3*1 



Canto XXX] INFERNO 203 

When I perceived he spoke to me with anger, 
With such deep shame I turned my face 

towards him 
That at the memory still my head goes 

spinning. 135 

And as one is that dreams of his own damage, 
Who, as he dreameth, longs that he were 

dreaming, 
So that what is, as if ' t were not, he covets, 1 3 8 

Even so was I, finding no word to utter ; 
For I desired to make excuse, and, truly, 
I made it all the while, and thought I did not. 141 
A lesser shame may purge a greater failing 
Than this of thine hath been;" replied the 

master, 
** Therefore disburden thee of all thy sadness, 144 
And take account I am beside thee alway, 

If it should chance once more that fortune 

bring thee 
Where there be folk that wrangle in such 

fashion; 147 

For it is a base wish to wish to hear it.*' 



XXXI 



One and the selfsame tongue it was first stung 



me, 
So that it tinged my cheeks, one and the other, 
And then held out to me the healing balsam. 

So I have heard the lance of great Achilles 
And of his sire was wont to be occasion 
At first of sad, and then of kindly, guerdon. 

We turned our back upon the wretched valley 
Up by the bank that all around engirds it, 
Making our way across without discoursing, 

Here there was less than night and less than 
daylight, 
So that my vision went not far before me. 
But 1 was ware a mighty trumpet sounded. 

So loud it had made faint all voice of thunder ; 
Which, following along its course reversewise. 
My eyes entirely to one place directed. 

After the rout of dolorous remembrance, 

When Charlemagne lost all that sacred peerage, 
Not even Orlando blew a blast so dreadful. 

But a brief while I had my head turned thither, 
When seemed to come in sight many tall 
towers : 



3 

I 

9 

i 

IS 



Canto XXXI] INFERNO 205 

Whence I : *' Dear Master, say what is yon 

city?" - 21 

And he to me : " By reason that thou runnest 
Too far ahead athwart the gloom, it happens 
That then thou wanderest in imagination. 24 

That wilt see well, on coming to close quarters, 
How much the senses are deceived at distance : 
Spur thyself, therefore, on a little faster :" 27 

Then took me by the hand aifectionately. 
And said : " Or ever we go further forward. 
So that the fact may seem to thee less wondrous, 30 

Know that those yonder are not towers, but 
giants ; 
And they are in the pit, around the bankside. 
One and all hidden from the navel downward/* 3 3 

As, when a heavy mist is dissipated. 

The sight, little by little, again doth figure 
That which the haze that piles the air had 

hidden, 36 

So, piercing through that air obscure and heavy. 
And near and nearer to the brink approaching. 
Fled error from me, and grew fear upon me : 39 

For even as above her circling ramparts 
Montereggione crowns herself with towers, 
In such wise towered aloft with half their body 42 

Out of the pit above its girdling border 

The dreadful giants whom from heaven Jove 
threatens 



2o6 



DANTE 



[Canto XXXI 



Even unto this day, what time it thunders. 
And I discemed the face of one already. 

Shoulders and breast, and a great part of 
belly, 

And all along the ribs both arms depending. 
Nature, in sooth, when she gave up the making 

Of such like living creatures, did quite rightly 

To take from Mars such doers of his bidding. 
And, if of elephants and whales she doth not 

Repent herself, he who regards it subtly 

Therein will hold her still more just and prudent. 
For, where the equipment and the use of reason 

Are joined to ill intent and power of action, 

No sort of refuge can folk make against it. 
His face in length and breadth had such appear- 
ance 

As hath at Rome the pine-cone of St. Peter : 

And all the other bones in its proportion ; 
So that the bank, which served the part of apron 

Down from the middle, showed of him above it 

Fully so much that even to reach the tresses 
Three Frisians had made an idle boasting : 

Because I saw of great palms' breadths full 
thirty 

From the place downward where men clasp 
their mantles, 
Rafel mai amech zabl almi : '* 

Such outcry 'gan the fearful mouth to utter, 



60 



63 




Canto XXXI] INFERNO 207 

To which no sweeter canticles were fitting. 69 

And unto him my leader : ** Soul insensate, 

Keep to thy horn, and with it ease thy trouble, 

When anger pricketh thee or other passion : 72 

Look to thy neck, and thou wilt find the shackle 

That holdeth thee in bonds, O soul 
bemuddled. 

And see it where it girds thy mighty bosom.'* 75 
Then said to me : ** He is his own accuser : 

This one is Nimrod, from whose evil notion 

One language in the world is not used only. 78 

Leave him alone, and waste no words upon him : 

For so to him is every single language 

As his to others, which is known to no man." 8 1 
And thereupon we made a further journey, 

Turning to left, and at a shot of cross-bow 

We found the next one, fiercer much and 

bigger. 84 

To gird him, of what sort had been the master 

I cannot tell you, but he kept engirded 

In front the other arm, the right behind him, 87 
With single chain, that on the neck and down- 
ward 

So held him coiled, that on the part 
uncovered 

It wound itself as far as the fifth turning. 90 

" This haughty one would be experimented 

Of his own potency 'gainst Jove Most Highest," 



2o8 DANTE [Canto XXXI 

My leader said, " whence he hath sath 

requital. 9; 

He Ephialtes hight ; he made those essays 
What time the giants put the gods in terror : 
He moves no mcnre the arms that then he 

flourished." gi 

And I to him : *' If it can be, fain would I 
That of Briareus, the immeasurable, 
Mine eyes might have experimental know- 
ledge." 91 
Whereat he answered : '' Thou shalt see Antaeus, 
Not far from here, who speaks, and is un- 
fettered. 
Who will set us in the lowest depth of evil. lo: 
He thou would'st see is yonder, much more distant. 
And he is bound, and fashioned just like this 

one, 
Save that he seems in countenance more 

savage." lo 

Never was yet an earthquake so tremendous 
That it could shake a tower as violently 
As Ephialtes shook, with sudden impulse. ic 
Then had I greater fear of death than ever ; 
And nothing more beyond the dread was 

needful, 
Had I not seen the twisted bands that held 
him. I 

Then straightway we proceeded further forward. 



; 



Canto XXXI] INFERNO 209 

And to Antaeus came, who five ells fully 
Issued, beside the head, out of the hollow. 114 
' O thou who in the valley chosen of fortune, 
The valley which made Scipio heir of glory. 
When Hannibal retreated with his army, 1 1 7 

A thousand lions once didst bring for booty — 
And who, if thou hadst been in that great 

battle 
Thy brothers fought, as some, it seems, still 

fancy, 120 

The children of the earth would have been 
•victory- 
Set us l)elow, and let not scorn possess thee, 
There where the cold intense locks up Cocytus. 1 2 3 
Make us not go to Tityos or Typhceus : 

This one can give of that which here is yearned 

for. 
Bow thyself then, nor curl thy lip disdainful ; 126 
Renown he yet may in the world restore thee ; 
For he doth live, and long life still doth look for, 
Unless Grace call him to itself untimely." 129 

Thus said the Master ; and the other, hastening, 
Outstretched the hands, and took therewith 

my leader. 
Whence Hercules once felt a mighty pressure. 132 
Virgil, when he was ware that he was taken, 
Said to me : '' Come this way, that I may take 
thee ; " 



210 DANTE [Canto XXXI 

Then wrought that he and I were but one 

parcel. 13s 

Just as, to look at Carisenda tower, 

Under the leaning side, when clouds are going 
Over its top, it seems to bow to meet them, 138 

Antaeus seemed to me, who stood expectant 
To see him stoop. And it was such a moment 
That I would fain have gone by other high- 
way. 141 

But down upon the bottom, which both Judas 
And Lucifer ingulfs, he lightly placed us : 
Nor, stooping so, made he there any tarry ; 144 

But, like a mast in ship,, straightway rose 
. upward. 



CANTO XXXII 

If I had store of rhymes rugged and grating, 
As would be proper for the dismal hollow 
Whereon the other rocks are all supported, 3 

I would express the juices of my fancy 

In fuller sort ; but, seeing that such I have 

not, 
Not without fear I bring myself to speaking. 6 

For 'tis no enterprise to be made light of. 
The base of all the universe to picture ; 
Nor for a tongue that calls ' Mamma ' or 

' Babbo/ 9 

But may those ladies to my verse be helpers 
Who gave Amphion aid for Thebes' enclosing. 
So that from fact the word be not discordant. 1 2 

populace, above all miscreated. 

Ye who are in the place so hard to speak of. 
Better had ye been here or sheep or wild- 
goats. 1 5 
When we were down within the pit of darkness 
Under the giant's feet, a good deal lower, 
And on the lofty wall I still was gazing, 1 8 

1 heard one say to me : '* Heed how thou 

steppest ; 



f~2i2 DANTE [Canto XXXII 

See to it that with thy soles thou dost not 
trample 

Upon the heads of the poor weary brothers." 21 
Whereat I turned, and I beheld before me, 

And underfoot, a lake that, by frost's doing. 

The semblance had of glass, and not of water. 24 
Never so thick a veil above its current 

The Danube drew in Austria in winter, 

Nor Tan2us beneath the cold sky yonder, 27 

As here there was : for though right down upon it 

All Tambemicch had fallen, or Pietrapana, 

Even on its edge it had not made a crackle. 30 
And, in what wise the frog doth sit a-croaking. 

With muzzle out of water, in the season 

When often dreams the rustic maid of gleaning, 3 3 
In such wise livid to where shame is patent 

The doleful shades within the ice were planted, 

To music as of storks their teeth attuning. 36 

Each of them kept his countenance turned down- 
ward ; 

The cold from mouth, and the sad heart from 
eyelids, 

Among them seeks and wrings its testimony. 39 
When I had looked some little while about me, 

I dropped my eyes and saw two strained so 
closely 

That they had tangled up their hair together. 42 

" Tell me, ye two who thus strain close your bosoms," 



Canto XXXII] INFERNO 213 

Said I, ** who are ye ? " And they their 
necks set backward. 

And, when they had their faces raised 

towards me, 45 

Their eyes, that had been only moist within 
them, 

Gushed over at the brims ; and then the 
freezing 

Congealed the tears between them, and fast 

locked them. ^ 48 

Never did clamp a log with log engirdle 

So firmly : whereat they, as might two he- 
goats. 

Butted together : such great wrath overcame 

them. 5 1 

And one, who both his ears had lost by reason 

Of the fierce cold, still with his face set down- 
ward. 

Said : ** Why so much thyself in us dost 

mirror ? 54 

If thou desir'st to know who are this couple, 

The valley from whose slopes Bisencio trickles 

Was theirs, and was their father Albert's 

also. 57 

They issued from one body ; and all Caina 

Thou might' st search through, and not a 
shade more worthy 

Would'st find of being set in frosty jelly ; 60 



214 DANTE [Canto XXXII 

Not him on whom a breach in breast and shadow 
Was at one stroke made by the hand of 

Arthur; 
Nor yet Focaccia, nor this one who blocks me 63 
So with his head that I see naught beyond him. 
And who for name had Sassol Mascheroni : 
Now know'st well who he was, if thou art 

Tuscan. 66 

And, that to more discourse thou may'st not 
put me. 
Know thou that I was Camicion de* Pazzi, 
And am expecting Carlin to excuse me.*' 69 

Thereafter saw I a thousand faces, dogUke 

Made by the cold, whence comes to me a 

shudder. 
And ever will, at sight of frozen shallows. 72 

And, while as we were going to the centre 

Whereto all that hath weight doth come 

together, 
And I was shivering in that cold eternal — 75 

Was it heaven's will, or destiny, or fortune, 
I know not, but — among the heads a-faring, 
Full hard I smote my foot on some one's 

visage. 78 

Weeping he yelled to me : *' Why dost thou 
pound me ? 
Unless thou comest to increase the vengeance 
Of Mont' Aperti, why dost thou molest me ? " 81 



Canto XXXII] INFERNO 215 

And I : " Dear master, here, I pray, await me, 
That I may end a doubt regarding this one : 
Then, howsoever thou wilt, shalt make me 

hasten." 84 

My leader halted : and I thus addressed him 
Who all the while was stubbornly blasphem- 
ing : 
" What sort art thou who thus dost rail at 

others ? *' 87 

' Pray who art thoif, who goest through Ante- 
nora. 
Smiting,*' he answered, " others on their 

faces. 
So that, wert thou alive, it were too heavy ? '* 90 
' Alive I am : and dear to thee it may be,*' 

Thus was my answer : ''if for fame thou 

seekest. 
That I should put thy name 'mongst other 

records." 93 

And he to me : " Contrary boon I yearn for : 
Begone from hence, and give me no more 

worry : 
111 know'st thou how in this morass to 

flatter." 96 

Then by the back-hair of his nape I took him, 
And said : " There will be need that thou 

shouldst name thee. 
Or else have not a hair hereon remaining." 99 



2i6 DANTE [Canto XXXII 

Then he to me : " For all thou pluck my 
tresses, 
Nor will I tell thee who I am, nor show thee, 
Not though thou give my head a thousand 

buffets." 102 

I had his hair now in my hand well twisted. 
And from his scalp more locks than one had 

taken ; 
He the while barking, with his eyes cast 

downwards ; 105 

When cried another : " What doth ail thee, 
Bocca ? 
Doth not suffice thee with thy jaws to 

clatter, 
Unless thou also bark ? What devil pricks 

thee ? '* 108 

" Ah ! now," I said, ** no word from thee I ask 
for. 
Villainous traitor ; for, unto thy shaming, 
I will take back veracious news about thee." m 
*' Be off," he answered, " and what likes thee, 
tell it ; 
But hold not peace, if out from hence thou 

goest. 
Of him who had, just now, his tongue so 

ready : 114 

Here he bewails the money of the Frenchmen. 
' I saw,' thus canst thou say, * him of Duera 



Canto XXXII] INFERNO 217 

Down in the place where sinners have cool 

weather.* 117 

And if thou shouldst be asked who were the 
others, 
Thou hast beside thee him of Beccheria, 
The one whose throat-piece Florence cut in 

sunder. 1 20 

Gianni del Soldanier, I think, is lying 
Beyond, with Ganellone and Tebaldello, 
Who oped Faenza's gates when men were 

sleeping." 123 

We had already left him well behind us, 
When I espied two icebound in one hollow. 
So that one head was cap unto the other. 1 26 

And, as a man devours a loaf when famished, 
So he above his teeth i* the other fastened 
Just where the brain and nape are joined 

together. 129 

Not otherwise did Tydeus gnaw the temples 
Of Menalippus, in disdainful fury, 
Than he the skull did and the other portions. 1 3 2 
' O thou who showest, by display so beastlike. 
Hate to the head below thee that thou eatest. 
Tell me the why," I said, *' upon this bar- 
gain ; 135 
If thou bemoan'st on his account with reason, 
I, knowing what you two are, and what his 
trespass, 



2i8 DANTE [Canto XXMI 

r the upper world will make thee fit 
requital, 13S 

If that wherewith I speak become not withered" 



CANTO XXXIII 

His mouth uplifted from the fearsome morsel 
That sinner, wiping it upon the tresses 
Of that same head whose hinder part he wasted. 3 

Then he began : *' Thou bidst me make renewal 
Of hopeless grief, that wrings my heart already 
At the mere thought, or e'er a word I utter. 6 

But be my words the seed, and be the fruitage 
Infamy to the traitor I am gnawing, 
Thou shalt see one shed tears and speak 

together. 9 

I know not who thou art, nor in what manner 
Art thou come here below ; but man of 

Florence 
Thou seemest, of a truth, when I do hear thee. 1 2 

Thou must know, then, I was Count Ugolino, 
And this one was Ruggieri, the Archbishop. 
Now will I tell thee why I am such a neigh- 
bour. 15 

That, by effect of his malignant scheming. 
Trusting myself to him, I first was taken, 
And after died, it needs not to make mention. 1 8 

But that whereof thou canst not have acquain- 
tance, 

ai9 



220 DANTE [Canto XXXIH 

That is, to what degree my death was cmely 
Now thou shalt hear, and know if he provoked 

me. II 

A Uttle rift within the moulting-chamber. 
Which now hath got from me the name of 

hunger, 
And wherein still must others be impris<xied» h 
Had shown to me akeady through its fissure 
Full many moons, when the ill sleep befeU me» 
That rent for me the curtain of the future. tj 

This one, it seemed to me, as lord and miaster. 
Hunted the wolf and wolf-cubs on the hill- 
side 
That lets not Pisan men have sight of Lucca. 30 
With bitch-hounds, lean, and keen of scent and 
cunning, 
Gualandi, with Sismondi, and with Lan- 

franchi, 
He in advance of all the van had posted. 33 

After a quite short course both sire and offspring 
Seemed to me weary, and with fangs sharp- 
pointed 
Their flanks I seemed to see the others rending. 36 
When that I was awake before the morrow, 
I saw my children, who were with me, weeping 
And clamouring for bread amid their slumber. 39 
Cruel indeed thou art, if now thou griev'st not 
At thought of what was to my heart foreboded : 



Canto XXXIII] INFERNO 221 

And if thou weep'st not, what art wont to 

weep for ? 42 

By this they were awake ; and the hour was 
nearing 
When custom was to bring our day's pro- 
vision, 
And each, by reason of his dream, was 

doubting. 45 

And I was ware that some one nailed the outlet 
At foot of the dreadful tower : then in 

the faces 
Of my -dear sons I stared, not one word 

speaking : 48 

I wept not ; so to stone 1 turned within mc. 
They wept, and said my little Anselm : 

' Father, 
How thou art staring at us ; pray, what is it ? ' 51 
But still I shed no tear, nor made I answer 
On all that day, nor on the night that 

followed. 
Till on the world another sun had issued. 54 

When a faint ray of light had made its entrance 
Within that prison of sorrow, and I discovered 
Upon four faces mine own selfsame aspect, 57 

On both my hands I bit, for very anguish. 
And they, supposing that I only did it 
From wish to eat, rose up all on a sudden, 60 

And said, * O father, less would be our dolour. 



222 DANTE [Canto XXXHI 

If thou wouldst eat of us : thou gaVst us 

clothing 
Of these poor robes of fiesh : do thou despoil us/ 63 
I calmed me then, not to increase their sadness. 
That and another day we all stayed silent. 
Ah ! thou hard earth, why then didst thou 
not open ? 66 

When we had come unto the fourth day, Gaddo 
Flung himself at my feet with arms extended, 
Saying, * My father, why dost thou not help 

me ? * 69 

With that he died ; and, surely as thou dost see 
me, 
I saw the three drop one by one before me, 
Twixt the fifth day and sixth : then, bUnd 
already, 72 

I set myself a-groping o'er each body : 

And two whole days, when they were dead, I 

called them. 
Then hunger wrought a greater work than 

sorrow/' 7! 

This having spoken, with distorted eyeballs, 
Again upon the wretched skull he fastened 
With teeth that, like a dog's, were strong to 

crunch it. 7 

Ah ! Pisa ! thou reproach of all the peoples 
Dwelling in that fair land where *' Si " is 
spoken. 



Canto XXXIII] INFERNO 223 

Since that thy neighbours tarry with their 

vengeance, 8 1 

Let La Caprara move, and La Gorgona, 
And make a bank even in the jaws of Arno, 
That he may drown each living soul within 

thee : 84 

For, even had Count Ugolino got him 
The fame of the betrayer of thy castles, 
No right hadst thou on such a cross to fasten 87 

His sons : their younger age of guilt acquitted, 
Thou younger Thebes ! Uguccion and Brigata, 
And the other two my song above doth 

mention. 90 

We passed on further, where the frosty rigour 
In a rough sort another folk doth swaddle. 
Not with the face downcast, but all thrown 

backward. 93 

Weeping itself to them allows not weeping ; 
And woe, that on the eyeballs finds arrestment, 
Is turned within, to make increase of anguish. 96 

For the first tear-drops gather in a cluster. 
And, as might be a vizor all of crystal. 
Fill to the brim the cup beneath the eyelid. 99 

And notwithstanding that, as on a callus, 
By reason of the extreme cold all feeling 
Had given up its lodgment in my visage, 102 

Even now, meseemed, I felt a faint wind 
blowing. 



224 DANTE [Canto XXXIII 

Then I : " Dear master ! what doth make 

this stirring ? 
Is not all vapour here below extinguished ? " 105 
And he to me : ** Thou wilt in but a twinkling 
Be where to that thine eye will give thee 

answer, 
Seeing the cause that rains the blast upon 
us/' 108 

And one of the sad dwellers in the ice-crust 
Cried out to us : '* O souls so cruel-hearted 
That unto you is given the furthest station, 1 1 1 
Raise for me from my face these rigid curtains, 
That I may vent the grief which swells my 

bosom, 
A moment, ere the tears again be frozen.'* 114 

And I to him : "If thou would'st have me aid 
thee, 
Tell who thou art ; and, if I do not clear thee. 
Unto the ice's bottom be my going." 117 

Then answered he : *' I am Brother Alberigo ; 
He am I of the fruit of the bad garden. 
Who here for fig I gave take date in pay- 
ment." 120 
' Oh ! " said I to him, " art thou then dead 
already ? " 
And he to me : ''In what wise fares my body 
r the world above, I bear not any know- 
ledge : 123 



Canto XXXIII] INFERNO 225 

And such advantage hath this Tolomea 

That oftentimes the soul doth fall down 

hither 
Or ever Atropos doth set it moving. 126 

And, for that thou may'st pluck for me more 
gladly 
From off my countenance the glazen tear- 
drops, 
Know that, the moment that the soul turns 

traitor, 129 

As I did, straight its body is taken from it 
By an evil spirit, who governs it thereafter, 
The while revolves in full its time allotted. 132 

The soul into this cistern tumbles headlong. 
And, haply, still above appears the body 
Of the very shade that winters here behind me : 135 
Him thou shouldst know if thou be new arriving : 
Tis Branca d'Oria ; and years full many 
Have passed since he was thus shut up in 

prison.*' 138 

' I think," said I to him, " thou dost deceive 
me. 
For Branca d'Oria died not whensoever. 
And eats, and drinks, and sleeps, and puts on 

raiment.'* 141 

In the pit of Evil-Claws above,*' he answered, 
" The place where the tenacious pitch is boiling. 
Not yet had Michael Zanche made arrival, 1 44 



226 DANTE [Canto XXXIII 

When this one left a devil in his body 

To take his place, and so did one his kinsman, 
Who with him wrought the treachery in 

concert. 147 

But there ! enough ! stretch now thy hand out 
hither ; 
Open my eyes." His eyes I did not open : 
Best courtesy to him was to be brutish. 1 50 

'Ah, men of Genoa, ye men so foreign 

From all good use, full of all imperfections ! 
Why from the world are ye not extirpated ? 153 

For with the foulest spirit of Romagna 

One of you foimd I, who by his own doing 

In soul doth bathe already in Cocytus, 156 

And still above doth seem alive in body. 



CANTO -XXXIV 

' Vexilla regis prodeimt inferni 

To usward : therefore look now straight before 

thee," 
Said my dear master : '* if thou canst 

discern him." 3 

And even as when a heavy fog is breathing, 
Or when our hemisphere is darkening night- 
wards, 
Far off appears a mill the wind is turning, 6 

Meseemed I saw that moment such a structure. 
Then, for the wind, I drew myself together 
Behind my guide : there was no other refuge. 9 
Now, and with fear I put it into metre. 

There was I where the shades were wholly 

covered. 
And showing through, as shows in glass a 

straw-mote. 1 2 

Some are as lying down, and some set upright. 
One on the head, and on the soles another ; 
Bow-like another, face and feet together. 1 5 

When we had made our progress so far forward 
That to my master it seemed fit to show me 
The creature that had once so fair a semblance, 1 8 

227 



228 DANTE [Canto XXXIV 

He stepped aside, and to a halt he brought me ; 
Saying, " Lo ! yonder, Dis ; lo ! the place 

yonder 
Where thou must put on fortitude for 

armour." 21 

How frozen I became thereat, how fainting, 
Ask it not, reader, for I do not write it. 
For all that I could say would be but little. 24 

I did not die, nor yet remained I living. 

Bethink thee now, if aught of wit thou claimest. 
What I became, bereft of both together. 27 

The sovereign monarch of the realm of sorrow 
Forth of the ice down to his mid-breast issued : 
And with a giant I am in proportion 30 

More equal than are with his arms the giants. 
Consider, now, how vast must be the total 
Which in accord with such like part is 

fashioned. 33 

If once he was as fair as he is loathly. 

And raised his brows even against his Maker, 
Well may it be from him proceeds all 

mourning. 36 

Oh, how it seemed to me a mighty marvel 
When I beheld upon his head three faces ! 
One was in front, and that one was 

vermilion : 39 

Twain were the others, which made junction 
with it 



Canto XXXIV] INFERNO 229 

Over the very middle of either shoulder, 
And in the place o' the crest they joined each 

other. 42 

That on the right seemed betwixt white and 
yellow : 
The left one was, to look at, such as those are 
Who come from where the Nile falls to its 

valley. 45 

Underneath each of them two great wings issued. 
As large as with so large a fowl accorded : 
Sails of the sea such like beheld I never : 48 

No feathers had they on them, but their fashion 
Was of a bat ; and these he ceased not flapping, 
So that three several winds were moving from 

him : 5 1 

Thence was it that Cocytus all was frozen. 

With six eyes wept he ; and on three chins 

trickled 
Adown the weeping and the bloody slaver, 54 

In every mouth he with his teeth was crunching 
A sinner, in the manner of a fiax-brake. 
So that he thus kept three of them in dolour. 57 
To him in front the biting was as nothing, 

Matched with the clawing, so that oft the back- 
bone 
Was left entirely of its skin denuded. 60 

' That soul above, who suffers greatest torment. 
Is Judas, called Iscariot," said my master. 



230 DANTE [Canto XXXIV 

" Who, head within, his legs without is plying : 63 

Of the two others, those whose heads are down- 
ward, 
The one who hangs from the black jowl is 

Brutus : 
See how he writhes, and not a word he utters : 66 
Cassius the other one, who seems so lusty. 
But night is rising, and for our departure 
The time is come ; for we have now seen 

all things." 69 

As was his pleasure, by the neck I clasped him ; 
And he of time and place took fit occasion, 
And, when the wings were wide enough set 

open, 72 

Upon the tufted ribs firm grip he fastened : 
From tuft to tuft then downward he des- 
cended 
Between the thick-set hair and frozen 

crusting. 7 5 

When we were at the part just by the thigh-joint, 
Exactly at the swelhng of the haunches. 
My leader, breathing hard, with toilsome 

effort, 78 

Turned his head round to where his shanks had 
rested, 
And grasped the hair like one who is upclimbing. 
So that I thought we were to hell returning. 8 1 

" Now keep fast hold ; for by such sort of ladders," 



Canto XXXIV] INFERNO 231 

The master said, panting like one overwearied, 
** From so great ill we needs must make 

departure." 84 

Then through a great rock's opening forth he 
issued, 
And down upon the edge he placed me sitting : 
Beside me then he set his prudent footstep. 87 
I lifted up my eyes, and thought to look on 
Lucifer in such wise as I had left him : 
And I espied him with his legs held upward. 90 
And if I then became oppressed with trouble, 
Let ruder folk consider, those who see not 
What is that point which I had just been 

passing. 93 

" Raise thyself on thy feet ; ** then said the 
master ; 
'* The way is long, and treacherous the path- 
way, 
And to mid- tierce the sun is now returning/' 96 
'Twas in no antechamber of a palace 

We were, but in a dungeon shaped by nature, 
That had ill floor and scant supply of day- 
light. 99 
" Ere from the abyss I tear myself asunder. 
Master," I said, as soon as I was upright, 
'* To save me from mistake, tell me this little : 102 
Where is the ice ? and how thus topsy-turvy 
Is he set fast ? and how in so few moments 



232 DANTE [Canto XXXIV 

From eve to morn hath the sun made his 

transit ? " 105 

And he to me, ** Thou still art, in thy fancy, 
Standing that side o' the centre where I 

grappled 
The hair of the world-piercing worm accursed. 108 
That side thou wast as long as I descended : 
When I turned round, thou then that point 

wast passing 
Whereto from every side weights draw 

together : in 

And now beneath that hemisphere art standing 
Which is opposed to that which over-arches 
The great dry land, and 'neath whose vault 

was stricken 114 

The man who in his birth and life was sinless : 
On that small sphere thou hast thy feet now 

resting 
Which makes the counterface of the 

Giudecca. 1 1 7 

Here it is mom, when yonder it is evening : 
And he who with his hair made us a ladder 
Still standeth fixt, even as he was aforetime. 1 20 
From this direction he fell down from heaven : 
And all the land which here before projected 
For fear of him made curtain of the ocean, 123 

And came into our hemisphere ; and, haply. 
To flee from him, what on this side is showing 



Canto XXXIV] INFERNO 233 

Left here the empty space, and up rebounded/' 1 26 
A place there is below, just as far distant 

From Beelzebub as the great tomb's 

dimensions, 
Which is not found by sight, but by the 

tinkling 129 

Of a little brook that trickles through a hollow 
Down there within a rock which in its windings 
It hath eroded, and the slope is gentle. 132 

My guide and I upon that hidden pathway 
Entered to make return to the world of 

brightness ; 
And, without taking thought of any resting, 135 
We mounted up, he first and I the second. 
So far that I had sight of things of beauty 
Borne on the firmament, through a round 

loophole: 138 

Thence came we forth to see the starry heavens. 



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us bnah ballada^ it mnat not be supposed that he has failed to 
cateh the true .Australian spirit- He feela the spaciousness and 
sunlit strength of AuBtraliaj and he has put them into his 
verier ' ' 

AustraJjASLAN ; *'Mt. Evans ^ poetry ig thoughtful and 
scholarly J his language well chosen, and Ma versification flowing 
and melodious. , * , His pervading note ia a cheerful con- 
templation of the preaeiit, and a belief in the future of his 
country, * • 

Daily TKLKauAFti : ** Thege poems are plainly the iRork oi 
a cultured and scholarly writer, whose well-ortlero'l the ugh ts are 
clothed in finely-wrought verse, ornamented here and there with 
delicate little gems of diction, and glowing at times with sub- 
dued euthusiasm. ' * 

BRmaAJNi Courier ; ''It well deserves the beat welcome Aus- 
tralia can give it . * . so filled is it with dignity and with 
charm. * ' 



AN OUTBACK MARRIAGE : jl story of JtuKtFmiiaii Lif& 

By A. B. Pateeson, author of *'Tb€ Man from 

Snowy Biver/' and **Bio Grande's Last 

Race." Third thousand. Crown 8vo, doth 

g\\t, 3s. 6d. {post free 4s. ^ 

Scotsman: *'The chief virtue of the book liei in its iT> 

nud vivid presentment of the wild life and the picturesque maa* 

n&rn of t£e Austral iaii bush^ wbile in form and itjle it claicoi 

reeognitioii aa a- work of eooskkrable literary diatioctiofi. * ' 

Pall Mall Ga^ITte: '*The whole tone of the book is fr<»3h 
and breezj. , , , Altogether, thia is a diatinctlj in teres ting 
atory.'* 

Olasgow Herald: '*. . , . will stand compariaon with 
worki of fiction produced in any part of the Engliah-speaking 
world.*' 

PuBLrsHERS' CiacuLAB: "A good yarn, pithy, strong, anil 
attractive. ' * 

BaisToL Western Peess: **A bright and cheerful yarn of 
AustraHan life, seasoned with a delightful humour.' ' 

The Bulletin : * * A cheerful story^ told with the careless ease 
and unasBuming casual ness that a reader would naturally asso- 
date with the author of The Man from Snowy Eiver. It is a 
fine, cheerful, healthy^ matter-of-fact yarn,*^ 

The Australasian: **A fresh and breezy open-air story of 
life on n station In the 'buck blocks,' , , \ It is free from 
the morbid and ejuieal tone that pervades so many of our novel- 
ists^ and the scenes of bush life are as good as anything of the 
kind hi Auatridian fiction. '' 

Sydney Mqrning HEaALD: '* The chief interest in the story 
lies in the fine descriptions of Australian bush life. The nuthor 
makes ev^tj page live when he h telling of these things. ' ' 

The Book: Lover: **lt gives one a good idea of life in the 
baek-blocks, and is, above all things, anmsing. , , , It is 
certainly a long time since so truthful a book has been written 
about this country. * ^ 

DAn.y TRLEfJHAPH; ** A capital Hpeeimen of genuine Au«tmlian 
fiction, racy of the soil, well written^ pleasantly salted with 
natural humour, aud agreeably brisk in action. The story is 
likely to be ae popular as the beat of the tiUbhor*s verses," 

Daily Mail (Brisbane): '^All the characters live and move, 
and anyone who takes up the book will not care to put it dov 
until the end. . . . It is one of the best Australian stori 
yet published/' 

The Age: *'A rattling yarn. ^' 

Sydney Mail: **A capital tale which ranks hi^h among Au 
tralian works of Action." 



eah ^n 



FAIR GIRLS AND GRAY HORSES, 
WITH OTHER VERSES. 

By Will H. OorLViE. Twelfth thousand. With 
portrait. Crown 8vo.j cloth g^ilt, gilt top 
("Snowy River" Series), 5s. [post free 
5s. 5d.) 

Scotsman; *'Its verses draw theii" natural inspiration from 
the camp^ the cattle trail, and the bush; attd tUeiT most cbsrao- 
teristie and compelling rhythms from the clatter of horses' 
boofa,'* 

Spectator: '' Nothing: conld be better than bia bush ballads, 
and he writes of horses with the fervour of Lindsay Gordon. ' ' 

Glasgow Herald : * ^ Mr, Ogilvi© sings with a daih atid a lilt 
w&rthy of the eaptaina of Australian song. . . . Whoever 
reads these Terses holds the key to all that is attractive in the 
life that is ebaracteristically Australian. ' * 

Glaboow Daily Mail: "A volume which deserves a feearty 
welcome is this collection of Australian verse. . . . It baa 
a spirit and lyrical charm that make it very enjoyable*^' 

Nottingham Guakdian: **The author's rhymes have a merry 
jingle, and his liiica move with a zeat and stir which make them 
altogether enjoyable. ' ' 

Beli^ast Newslettee: **Mt, Ogilvie ia a poet whose verses 
should become aa well known in the United Kingdom as they are 
in Australia, far he has a genuine love of nature, and gifts which 
J enable him to express his thoughts in excellent verse." 

Nbw Zealand Maii*! "There is all the buoyancy, the iustineaa 
of youth, the joh-de-vivre of the man who rejoices in the fresh 
air and the flce^ free, up-country Hfe^all this there ia in Mr. 
Ogilvie's verae, and much more that is eminently sane and 
healthy, a characteristic production of a wholesome mind." 

Queen SL.V NDE& : '* Within the covers of *Fujr Girla and Gray 
Horses' lie some delicious morsels to tempt all palates. There 
is for the askiTigj the stirring swing and rhythm of his gallopiDg 
rhynies, the jingle of bit and bridle, the creak of well-worn 
saddles, the scent of gam and wattle, the swift, keen rush of 
the bush wind in the face of *The Man Who Steadies the Lead.* 
, . , , Picture after picture starts out of his pages to 
gladden the hearts of the men out back.*' 



HEARTS OF GOLD, AND OTHER VERSES. 

By Will H, OgilyiEj author of *' Fair Girla and 
Gray Horses/' Third thousand. Crowo 
8vo., cloth, 48. 6d. ffosifree SsJ, 



THE MAN FROM SNOWY RIVER. 

AND OTHER VERSES^ 

By A, B, Paterron. Thirty-seventh thousand. 
With photogravure portrait and vignette 
title. Crown 8vo., cloth gilt, gilt top, Sa. 
(post free 5s, 5d}. 

The LiTEMAEY Year Book: "Tlie immedmte sueeeaa of this 
haok of bu^b ballatts ia without parallel in Colonial Iiterai7 
luinals, nor can any living Eng-lTsh or Am er lean poet boast 80 
witio a publiCf alwHjg excepting Mr, Eueljard Kipling.*^ 

Spectator: '♦These liaet have the true Ijrieal ery m them. 
Eloquent and artlent veraes." 

Atbrx.isiisi: "Swinging, ribtbljng balUds of ready humour, 
ready pathos^ and crowding adventure. . ^ . Stirring and 
entertaining ballads about great ridesj in which the Unca gallop 
like the very hoofs of the horses,*' 

The Times; **At his best he compares not unfaFOurably with 
the author of * Barrack Room BaJlada. * ' ' 

Mr, A, Patchett Martin, in Liteeature (TjondDn) r "In 
tny opJRjon, it is the jibso lately un-Engliah. thoroughly Aus- 
tralian style and character of these new bush bards which baa 
given them sueh immediate popularity, such wide vogue, among 
all cl&SBes of the rising native genemtiou. * ' 

Westminster GAZErrE: * ^Australia has produced in Mr. A. 
B, Pateraon a national poet whose bush balJads are as distinc- 
tively eharacteristie of the country as Burns 's poetry is charac- 
teristic of Scotland-'^ 

Thb S€OTSmaK: **A book like this . , - is worth a doaen 
of the aspiring, idealistic sort, since it has a deal of rough 
laughter and a daah of real tears in its composition, " 

Glasgow Herali*: "These ballads ... are full of such 
go that the mere reading of them makes the blood tingle. , , , 
But there are other things in Mr, Paterson *8 book besides mere 
racing and chasing, and each piece beara the mark of special 
local knowkdge, feeling, and colour. The poet has also a note 
of pathos, which is always wholesome. ■ ' 

IjiTEEARr World ; "He gallops along with a by no tneaaa 
doubtful music, shouting: his vigorous songs as he rides in pur- 
suit of wild bush honwa^ constraining us to listen and applaud 
by dint of hia manly tones and capital subjects* , * , We 
turn to Mr. Paterson 's roaring muse with iustantaneoua grati- 
tude, ' * 

London: Maemillan and Co., Limited. 



4 



4 



^ 



m. 




mo GRANDEES LAST RACE, AND OTHER VERSES, 

By A. B. Paterson. Eitrhth tliousand. Crown 
8vo., cloth ^ilt, gilt top J 5s. {post free 5s* 5d,). 

Spectatoe: ** There is no mistaking tlie vigour of Mr, Pater- 
soD^s verse; there ia no difficulty in feeling the strong hamau 
interest which mo\*es in it. ' ' 

Daily Mail; ''Every way wi>rthy of the man who rank? wit% 
the first of Australian poets* ^ ' 

Scotsman : * * At once naturallBtic and imaginative, and racy 
without being slangy, tbe poems have always a strong human 
interest of every -day life to keep them going. They make a 
boDk which should g:ive f^n equal pleasure to simple and to 
fastidious readers* ' ' 

Bookman: '^Now and again a deeper theme, like an e^;ho 
from the older, more eitperienced land, leads him to more serious 
singing^ and proves that real poetry ia, after all, nniveraaL It 
ia a hearty book,'* 

Daily Chronicle: '^Mr. Paterson has powerful and varied 
sympathies, coupled with a genuine lyrical impulse^ and aome 
skilly which makes Ma attempts always attractive and uiually 
suecestf ul ^ ' 

Glasgow Herald: "These are all entertaining, their rough 
and ready wit and virility of expression making them highly 
aceoptable, while the dash of satire gives point to the humour." 

BfiiTiSH Australasian: "He catches the bush in its most 
joyous moments, and writes of it with the simple charm of an 
unaffected lover." 

TiiE TiMKS: "Will be welcome to that too select class at 
borne who follow the Australian endeavour to utter a fresh and 
genuine poetic voice.*' 

MANCioiSTEa Coueier: ''Mr. Paterson now proves beyond 
question that Australia has produced at least one singer who 
can voice in truest poetry the aspirations and experiences 
peculiar to the Commonwealth^ and who is to be ranked with the 
foremost living poets of the motherland/' 

St. James's Gazette: "Fine, awitiglng, stirring stuff, that 
sings as it goes along. The subjects are capital, and some of 
the refrains haunt one. There is always room for a book of 
unpretentiou.% vigorous verse of this sort'* 

The Arous: ''These ballads make bright and easy reading; 
one takes up the book, and, delighted at the rhythm, turns page 
after page, finding entertainment upon each, *^ 

London: Macmitan und Co^, Limited, 



THE POETICAL WORKS OF 
BRUNTON STEPHENS. 

New edition. With photogravure portrait. Crown ^ 
8vo, clnth gilt, gilt top, 5s* (post free 5s. od,). ^M 
See aho Commmttveakh Series ^ page IS ^^ 

The Tiuks ; ' * This coUectmn of the works of the Queensland 
poet, who has for a getieration deservedly held a high place in 
Australian literature, well deserves study.'' 

Daily News; **In turning over the pages of this volume, 
one is struck by hia breatlth, his reJfsatiHtj, hia Compaq, as 

evideneeti in theme, fleotiuieat, and style/ ^ 

The Atuknjsltm ; ** Brunt on Stpphens^ , , . well known 
to all those who are curious in Australian literature, as being, 
on the whole, the best of Australian poets." 

St. Jaiies' Gazittb: "Thia sabstautial V0lume of verse con- 
tains a great deal that is veiy fresh and pleasing, whether grave 
OT gay* ' ' 

Manchestee Guardiak: ''He ahowi a capacity for forceful 
and rhetorical verse, which makes a fit vehicle for linperlal 
tbemea," 

Speaxebt '*We glaJly recognise the merit of Jnuch that 
appears in *The Poetical Works of Mr. Brunton Stephens** 
» , . . In the more ambitious pieces (and in these the author 
is most suceeaaful) be models himself on gooti masters, and his 
strains have power and dignity. ' ' 

PiTBUSHERS' Circulab: *^ Having greatly enjoyed many of 
the poems in the handsome cflition of Mr. Brunton Stephens* 
works, we strongly advise such renders of poetry in the old 
conutry as are uuacqtiainted with his contributions to English 
literature to procure the volume as soon aa poaaible," 



A BUSH GIRL'S SONGS- 

Bj ^Rena Wallace. With portrait. Crown 8vo^ 
clofcli gilt, gilt top, 5a. (post free j 5s, 4(1.), 

Daily Telegraph: *' There ia pasaion aa well as melody in 
' A Bush Girl *a Songs * ; and there is thought also— real thought, 
that underlies the music of the verse, and gives the writer some- 
thing definite to communicate to her readers on the great 
uijiversrtl subjects that are the province of true poetry, as 
distinct from mere verse. One cannot help remarking with 
pleasure the prevailing note of hopefulness, a sunshiny charm, 
that is felt throughout all this fresh young writer's work.'* 

6 



I 

4 




r jnOW HE DIED. AND OTHER POEMS. 

L Bj JoHK Paerell, Third edition. With Memoir, 

I Appreciations, and photogravuro portrait. 

^^ Crown 870., cloth gilt, gilt top, 5s. (post 

^^ free 5.^. 4d.) 

Melboubne Age; ''Tarrell's contribution 3 to tte literature 
of this country were always dlstlnguisber] by a fine, atirring 
optimising a genuine sympathy, and an idealistic Bentimemt, 
which in the book under notice find their f nil est ejcpresaion. " 

New Zealand Maii>; '*0f the part of Mr. FarrelPs work con- 
tained ill this volume it is tiot necessaty to say more than that 
it has long since received sincere commendution, not only from 
other Australian writers, but from men eminent in letters in 
England and America* ^ * 

The World's News; *'lt is a voliinne which no Australian 
reader can afford to be without. John Farrell was a vigorous 
writer, one, too, in whom the poetic spirit was very strjngj and 
he had the gift of expressing himself in terse language, Ha<3 
he written nothiDg else than ^Australia to England,' his name 
would live for all time. ' ^ 



AN ANTHOLOGY OF AUSTRALIAN VERSE. 

Edited by Behtram Stevens. Seventh thoasand. 
FoolacFip 8vo., limp ItJather, extra gilt, 3s. 6d.; 
limp cloth, 2s. 6d, [postage 3d.) 
The Times: '* There is plenty of good veraCj there are touch- 
ing ^ vigorous, effective poems, in Mr. Bertram Stevens's Aus- 
tralian Anthology. It is a collection of real interest." 
The Scotsman: *'Mr. Stevens's selection is full of interest.*' 
SHErFiJa^u Daily Telegraph; '*Thifii hook is a MgMy inter- 
esting and agreeable one." 

DuNUEE AuvEaTiSEu; **ExcelleDt and comprehensive. , , - 
Mr. Stevens has had the use of MS. poems iu several caseg. 
This volume, therefore, contains several pieces not to be found 
in other collections." 
Glasgow Herald: "This delightful volume." 
Syuxey MottNiKG HEaALD: "There is evidence in the selec- 
tions and in the introduction that be has made a diligent and 
careful study of the whole field of Australian poetry. We have 
only to thank both editor and publishers for a beautiful little 
book full of beautiful things." 

I London: MaGmillan and Co., Limited. 

m 



DOT AND THE KANGAROO, 

By Ethel C. Pedley. Illustrated by F, P. 
Maliony- Ei^htb thousand. CrowiiBvo, clotb, 
extra gilt, 33, 6d, (post free 3s, lid.). 

Syhnbt Morning Herau>: *' 'Dot ani3 the K&ngHToo* is wilh- 
out doobt one of the most charming books that could be put into 
the hftiirk of a ehilil. It is flAimiraUly iUustrat^d by Fnxnk }\ 
Mtihonj, who aeoma to have entered tboroughlj into the apint 
of this beautiful journoj into the animal world of Australia. 
The story in altogether ^4 ustralian, . ♦ , It is told io simply, 
and yet so artistically, that even the 'grown-ups^ amongst m 
must enjoy it.*' 

DAn.Y TKi.KGajU'tt: '*Tbo late Misa Ethel Pedley was r 
musician to tbe eore. But towards the clo«e of her life she 
made one step aside into the domain of a sister art^ which re- 
sulted in a book for ehilrlren, entitled *Dot and the Katjgaroo*^ — 
ft chanuing atory of the ' Alice in Wonderlaud ' order. . . . 
Dot, tbe small heroine, is lost in the bush, where she ia fed and 
ministered to by a helpful kangaroo, who introduees her gradu- 
ally to quite a little circle of acquaintances. We hobnob, 
through Dot, with our old friends the oposauxn, tbe native bear, 
the platypus, the bower-bird, not to speak of the emti sheep- 
hunters and the cockatoo judge. There is a most exciting fight 
between a valiant kookooburra and a treackeraus snake. Alto- 
gether^ Miss Pedley 'a story is told in a way to entrance our 
small readers, who generally revel io tales where animals are 
invested with bumao attributes,*' 

The Arous : ^ ' A sort of fairy story with local colour, which 
would be very acceptable to Australian children. * . , Dot 
ii a little girlie who lives on the edge of the bush, and one day 
she wanders oif and gets lost. But a big kangaroo finds her, 
and takes i^harge of her. She eats some berries which give her 
the power to understand the bush talk, and after four days 
amongst the great wild creatures, the kangaroo finds her home 
apdu for her. It is a pretty story, prettily told.*' 

Daily Mail (Brisbane)^ **A more fascinating study for Aus- 
tralian children is hardly conceivable^ for it endows the numeroiis 
bush animals with human speech, and reproduces a variety of 
amusing conversations between them and Dot, the little heroine 
of the book. , , . It is a clever production that adults may 
read with pleasure, ^^ 

Town ani> Country Journal; '^Mias Pedley 's book was a 
labour of iove, and it should prove a source of pleasure to count- 
less children. . . , She has l>een very happy in her method, 
and has done her work cleverly. ' * 

The Courier (Brisbane): ''In this delightful story book 



there is an 
writer, * ' 



artist's faneifulneaBj with the skill of a capable 



i 




WHEN THE WORLD WAS WIDE. 
AND OTHER VERSES. 

By Hekey IjAwsO!^, Thirteenth thousand. With 
photogravure portrait and vignette title. 
Crown 8vo., clofcli gilt, gilt top, 5s, {post 
free 5a. 5d.) 

The Academy: ''These ballada (for sueb they mostly are) 
abound in spirit and manhood, in the colour and amell of Aus- 
tralian aolL They deserve the popnlarity which they have won 
m Auatralio., and which s we trust, this edition will now give them 
in England." 

The Spbl^ker- '^ There are poems in 'In the Daya Wlien the 
World was Wide' which are of a higher moad that any yet 
beard in distinctively Australian poetry.'^ 

Literary Woeld: *^Not a few of the pieces have made us 
feel discouteuted with our sober surnnmdings, and desirous of 
seeing new birds, new laudscapesj new stars; for at times the 
blood tingles because of Mr. Lawson's galloping rhymes.'^ 

Newcastle Weekly Chronicle: "Swingingj rhythmics 
verse, ' ' 



WHEN I WAS KING. AND OTHER VERSES- 

By Henry Lawbon, Fonrth thousand. Crown 
8vo,, cloth giltj 3s, 6d, (post free ^s.). 

Ais<y in ttoo partt, en fit led '' When I Was Kijfg" und " 77te 
Eidff Soiu' See /({(ge IS. 

BPHCTATOtt (London) : *' A good deal of humour, a great deaj 
of spirit^ and a robust philosophy are the main charaGteristics 
of theae Australian poets. Because they write of a worl<3 they 
know, and of feelings tbey have themselves shared in, they are 
far nearer the heart of poetry than the most accomplished <lr" 
votees of a literary tradition/' 

Sydney Morj^ing Herald; '*He is known wherever the 
English language is spoken; be it the very god of the idolatry 
of Australian bushmen ; , , , he has written more and is 
better known than any other Australian of his age, , . , 
There is a musical lilt about hia verses which makes these dwell 
in the memoryj and there is in them also a revelation of truth 
and strength, . , . *When I was King' contains work of 
which many a eraftsman in words might well be proud , , ♦ 
lines that Walt Whitman — a master of rhythm when he liked, 
and a worshipper of it always — wouUl have been proud to claim 
as his own." 



VERSES. POPULAR AND HUMOROUS. 

By Henry Lawson. Thirteenth thousand. 
Crown 8vo., cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (post free 4if.). 
/br cheaper ^tiUmi Mt C&mntonimalih SeWf^i ^Mifr^ ^- 

Francis Tliompson^ in The Daily Chronicle: **He ia a 
writer i^f strong and ringing ballnd Terse, who gets Ma blows 
straight m, and at his best makes them all telL He can vignette 
the fife he knowg in a few touches, and ia this book shows an 
increaacd power of aeleetioti. ' ' 

New York Even mo Journal: '*Such pHde as a man feels 
wheo he has true greatness as his guests this newspaper feels 
In iptroducing to a million readers a man of ability Mtherto 
unknown to them. Henrj Lawaon la his name. * * 

Academy : * ' Mr. Law bod '* work should be well known to our 
readers f for we have urged them often enough to make acquaint- 
anco with it. He has the gift of niovement, and he rarely offers 
a looie rhyme, TechDieallyy short of anxious lapidary work^ 
these verses are excellent, H© varies sentiment and hnmonr very 
agreeably. ^ * 

The Bdcik Lover : ' * Any book of Lawson 'a should be bought 
and treaaored by all who care for the real beginniugs of Aua- 
tralian literature, Aa a matter of facti he ia the one Australian 
literary product, in any distinctive sense," 

The Bulletin: '^He is so very human that one's humanity 
cannot but welcome him, * . , To the perpetuation of lufl 
value and fame, many pieces in 'Verses: Popular and Hnmorouji' 
will contribute. 



i 



JOE WILSON AND HIS MATES. 

Bj Hmgitr Lawsok, Sixth thousand. Crown 
870., cloth gilt, Ss* 6d. (post free 4s,). 

For chiftper editmn 9£€ Gomm&nweijdlh Series^ page IS. 

The Athkn^cm ( London) ; " TUia is i^^ long way the best work 
Mr. TjHW^oTii has yet givoo us. Tbeae sfconei? are so good that (from 
the literary point of view, of course^ one hopes they are not auto- 
biogrftphicaL Aa avi bo biography they would be good^ as pure 
fictioo they are more of an altainment." 

The Acai>emy: '^It is this rare convincing tone of this 
Australian writer that gives him a great value. The most 
casual 'newspapery^ and apparently artless art of this Aus- 
tralian writer carries with it a truer, finer, more delieate com- 
mentary on life than all the idealistic works of any of our 
genteel school of writers* ' ' 

10 




WHILE THE BILLY BOILS. 

By Hknrt Law son. With eight illtistratioTiB by 
F. P. Mahony. Twenty- eighth thousand. 
Crown Svo.j cloth gilt^ 3s. 6cL (post free dfiJ) , 

Fqt ch^apsr edlUoji s^-e Commontmalth Series, pttge 13. 

The Academy; '*A book of honeet, direefc^ sjmpathetje, 
humorous writing about Australia from witMu h worth a library 
of tTaveJIers' tales. , , , The rei^iilt m a real book — a book 
in a hundred* His language is terse, supplej and ricUly 
idiomnbic. He can tell a yarn witb the best" 

The Scotsman: "There ia no ]ack of drHnatic imagination 
in the eonatrnction of the tales; and the best of them contrive 
to construct a strongs sensational aitnation in a couple of pages. 
But the chief charm and value af the book is ita fidelity to the 
rough character of the scenes from which it is drawn* ' ' 

LlTEHATUBE^ '^ These sketches bring ua into contact with one 
phase of colonial life at first band. . . , The simplicitj of 
the narrativa gives it almost the eflfect of a story that is told 
by word of mouth. ' ' 

Tre Spectator: '*Tt is strange that one we would venture 
to call the greatest Australian writer should be practically un- 
known in England* Mr* Lawson ia a less experienced writer 
than Mr, Kipling, and more unequal, but there are two or threo 
sketches in this volume which for vigour and truth can hold 
their own with even so great a rival. Both men have somehow 
gained that power of concentration which by a few strong strokes 
can set place and people before you with amazing force, * * 

The Times; **A collection of short and vigorous studies and 
stories of Australian life and character* A little in Bret Harte 'a 
manner, crossedj perhaps, with that of Guy do Maupassant.*' 

British Weekly : * * Many of Mr. Lawaon 'a tales photograph 
life at the diggiuga or in the bush with an incisive and remorse- 
leas reality that grips the imagination* lie silhouettes a swag- 
m?^n in a couple of pages, and the man is there, alive. ' * 

The Morning Post: 'Tor the most part they are full of 
local colour^ and^ correctly speaking, represent rather rapid 
feketchef illustrative of life in the bush than tales in the ordinary 
eenae of the word. , , . They bear the impress of truth, 
sincere if unvarnished/' 

II 



ON THE TBACK AND OVER THE SLIPRAILS 

By HsKRY LAWgON. Sixtaentb thon^^aiid* Cronit 

8vo.^ cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (post free 4^.) 
f^ cheaper tdiium m€ OommtmwtiMlih Serter^ pagt 13. 

Dailt CuaontctM: '^Will weU sastelD Ibe reputation il^ 
iMXh&f hwm vlrearjj won u the bait writer of AttstnUlan ohoft 
vtOTiw and sketehea the Itteraiy world koows.'* 

Pai*l Mall Gaxbtte; **Th€ volume now received will dft 
tnueli to eabance the author *fl repatAlion. There H all the 
qmei irr^stible humour of Bbkens in the deacription of 'Th^ 
Dftrtitig River/ and the creator of *Triithfiil James '^ never did 
aujtbiog better in the wa/ of character aJc etches than Steelmat} 
and MitchelL" 

Glasgow Herald; ''Mr^ Lawson mnat now be regarded as 
fuciit primtrpt in the production of the short tale. Some of 
these brief and even sslight sketches are veritable gcma lh»t 
w^uld he spoiled bj an added word, and without a word that 
mn be loosed upon aa superflnous. * * 

Sll>KKT MOKKIKG Herau>; "It U not too much to say for 
theie tketch^ that they show an acquaintance with bush life 
and ikti insight into the elaas of people which ia to be met with 
in thb lifp that are hanilj equalled in Australia. . * * In a 
liw wfirds he can paint for you the landscape of his pictures 
or tht» inticrmoBt recesses of his bushman ^s soul," 



i 



CHILDREN OF THE BUSH, 

By Henkv Lawsok. Crown Bvik, cloth gilt, 
3«. 6d, (post free 4s.). 

Also in t\t>o imtifij cniitUd ** Send Mound ike Htd *' a«ci *' Tht 
/{omance of th£ ,SwaQ." See ftfttjt IS. 

Daily Telegraph: ** These Btoriea are for the most part 
epiaodet which appear to have been taken direct from life 
, . . . and Mr* Law&on contrives to make them wonder- 
luJly vivid. , . , Mr. Lawaon's new stories are as good 
as his old i>nes, and higher praise they cmOd not get/' 

The Bulletin : * ' These »torios are the real Australiai 
written by the foremost living Australian author. , , . 
Lawson 's genius remains as vivid and hunt an as when he first 
boiled his literary biOy.^^ 

New 55J5ALAND Times: **His latest work, so far from ex- 
hibiting nny signs oi failing tiilent^ Becms to us to rank 
Atnongat the beat he h'"S yet dt>iie.*' 

\1 




By Henry Lawson 
By Henry Lawson 
By Henry Lawson 
By Henry Lawson 
By Henry Lawson 
By Henry Lawson 
By Henry Lawson 
By Henry Lawson 



THE COMMONWEALTH SERIES. 

Crown 8yo., picture cover, Is. each (postage 3d.). 
How He Died : YKESEa ' By John Farrell 

Sbkd Round the Hat : Stories. By Henry Lawson 
The Romance of the Swag : Stories, 

By Benry Lawson 
When I was Kmo i New Verses. 
The Eldeb Son : New Yerses. 
Joe Wilson : Stories. 
Joe Wii^son's Mates; Stories. 
On the Track • Stories. 
Over the Slipratls : Stories. 
POPULAB Verses. 
Humorous Verses, 

While the Billy Boils: Stories. — First Series, 

By Henry Lawson 

While the Billy Boils: Stories* — Second Series 

By Henry Lawson 

The Old Bush Songs. Edited hy A. B. Paterson 

My Chinee Cook, and other Humorous Verses. 

By Brunt on Stephens 

History of Australasia: From the Earliest Times 
to the Tnauouration of the Commonwealth. 

By A, W. Jose 
History of Australian Bushranginq. 

By Charles White 

Part I.— Tlie Early Days. 

Part 11.-1850 to 1862. 

Part TIL— 1863 to 1869. 

Part IV.— 1869 to 1878. 
For prem noliceA of these hitoks see ike clotk-bottnd sditions 
(m pages (J, 9, tO, il, /5, U, 15, and S3 of tkU Gntulo^ut 



Li 



THE OLD BUSH SONOS 

Collected aud edited by A. B. Patehson, author 
of **Ttie Man from Snowy River/' ^*Rio 
Grande's Last Race/* &e« Fifth thousand. 
Crow^ii 870, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. (post free, 2s, '^i). 

For chettptr edition *e« dtmm&nwealtk Saifn^ page 13. 

D.viLY Telegba^pH: '*Ro(ie and rnggecl tbeae oltl husb s&ags 
ate^ but they <M.rry In their vigoroua lines the very irapresa of 
their origin aniJ of their genuioeiiess* , * . Mr. FatersoB 
hfis done his work like an arliat.'* 



THB SPIRIT OF THE BUSH FIRE: 

AuitF4l|an Fairy T&tas, 

By J. M. Whitfeld, Second thousand. With 32 
illustrations by G. W. Lambert. Crown 8vf)., 
cloth giU, 2s. 6d. (post free 3s.). 

SvDNKY MoRNlNfj HkkalD; *' It IS frftjikly viTitteri for tiiti 
young folksj and the joungater wiU find a delight in Misi Whit- 
f eld *« nmrveUoua company. ' ' 

Daily TfiLEcjEAnii ^'It is pleasant to see author and artist 
working together in suiih eooiplete harmony. We have had so- 
called * Auatralinn * fairy tales before, but the sprites and gnomes 
and mermaids have been merely atray visitors from Eiiglish 
shores, oLl acquaintances of an olU- world chiltlhoi^d, dressed to 
suit alien aiirroundings. Misa Whitfeld's fairies are native la 
the soil. ' ' ' ^__ 

THE RADIANT DAYS OF LIFE : aermona and AddPe««e. 

By Rev, Geokge Mahtiiv, Methodist Minister. 

Edited by Rev, J. E. CarrutherB^ with an 

Appreciation by Rev. E. J, Rudii, find 

portrait. Crown 8vo.j cloth gilt^ 3m. 6tl. 

{potit frea 4a.), 

Tub Mrtmodlst : ''The editor, in his jtidieiona sdectiou of 

sermon a for pubUcation, gives some idea of t]w sfuipe and charactuc 

of Mr, Martinis preaching. . . . The sermons oow^ published 

wiU prove most jjistruetive and helpful to the reader," 



I 



NOTES ON THE SHORTER CATECHISM- 

By John Burgsss^ M,A. Part L — Questions 
1-38, 4d, {post free 5d.) 
Part IL— Qiieationa 39-81, 6d. (post free 7d.). 



I 



14 



i^it^ 




HISTORY OF AUSTRALIAN BUSHRANGING. 

By Charles White. In two vols. Crown 8yo., 
cloth giltj Bs. 6d. each (postage €d^ each), 
Voi I.— The Early Days to 1802, Ninth 

thousaiKl. 
Yol. IL— 1863 to 1878. Eighth thoaaand, 

Se& aiso Gommontifeallh S^H^a^ page IS. 
Year Book op Australia : ' ' The bushrangers have long aine** 
left the stage of Australian history, but their evil deeds live 
after them, and are Hkely to do st> for many years to come. 
HaTing coUected all the published details relating to the career 
of the Tasmanian as well as the Australian gangs, Mr* White 
has reduced them to a very readable 7>arrative, which may fairly 
be terme<1 a history. In this shape it forma a valuable coDtri- 
but] on to the general history of the country, especially as a 
picture of social life in the past/' 

QuEENaLANriKJi : " Mr. White Ijiua supplied mittei iitl enough 
for twenty aucb novtils as * Eobhery Under Arms.* " 

BROSHWORK FROM NATURE, WITH DESIGN. 

By J. E, Br^ingh, Stiperintendent of Drawingj 
Department of Public Instruction. Pre- 
scribed by the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, N.S.W., for Teachers' Examinations, 
With 19 coloured and 5 other plates. Demy 
4to.jdtjcorafced cloth, 7s. 6d. fpoftifreeSs. SdJ 
N-S.W. PuBL[G Instruction Gazette: **This book is in- 
tended primarily to illustrate methods of instruction in the art 
of using the brush in such col our- work aa may be taught eclu- 
eatively in primary schools. The author reeogoises the true 
place that drawing, as a mode of thought expression, shoulci 
occupy in relation to other sehool work. He is careful to point 
out that mechanical faeility in representing natural forms is 
not in itself an end^ but merely a prellmiuai^ training inteuded 
to lead to something higher in the educative process. The part 
kjthat brushwork may bo made to play in the educative process, 
land its advantages over other foruis of drawing, under certain 
CDn"iiiti4>na, are stated clearly and convincingly in the intro- 
duction/' 

The ScHOOLMAaTEE (London) t *'Thc teaching is very care- 
fully act out, and ia quite up to the standard of English authors 
in the same subject. The plates, too, are very carefully de- 
scribed and explained, and many useful hints are embodied in 
the notes. We have nothing but praiso for the matter, stylo, 
and get-up of the book." 

London ; The Educniional Supply Aasociatim^ Lttt 
15 



THE ANNOTATED CONSTITUTION OF THE 
AUSTRALIAN COMUONWEALTH. 

By Sir JoBN Quick and K. R, Garban, C.M.G, 
Rojal 8vo,, clotli gilt, 21s. 

The Timks: **The Annotate^i Coaatitution of the Australian 
Commonwealth is a monumeat of in dust ry^ , . * Dr, Qyick 
aad Mr. Garran have collected with patience and enthusiasm 
eveiy sort of information, legal ami historical, which can throw 
light on the new measure^ The book has evidently been a labour 
of love. ' ' 

The Scotsman: '^Students of constitutional law owe a 
welcome, and that in a scarcely less degree thao lawyers do who 
are likely to have to interpret the laws of the Australian Consti- 
tution, to thl^ learned and exhaustive commentary, .... 
The book is an adniirjible working text-book of the Constitu- 
tion. '' 

Dailt Chhonicle: "Here is the new Constitution net out and 
explaiuetl, word by word — how each phrase was formulated, where 
they all came from^ why they were put in, the probable dlffi- 
culties of interpreting or administeriDg each clause, with such 
help as can be given by consiilering similar difficulties in other 
Constitutions; every point, in fine^ in which lawyers' abili or 
the zeal of enthusiasts can discern the elements of mteresL^' 

Glasgow Heilald: ^*WiIl at once take rank as a stacidard 
authority, to be consulted, not only by students of constitutional 
history and political science, but also by aU those who, in the 
active fields of law, polities^ or commerce^ bave a practical in- 
terest in the working of the new federal institutions of A us 
tralia* ^ ' 



CALENDAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY, 

Demy 8vo., linen, 2s. 6d. ; paper cover, Is. (podage 
8d,) [Fubli^hed annimliyf in May. 



MANUAL OF PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS HELD BY 
THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY. 

Demy 8vo,, paper cover, 1b. (post free Is. 3d.). 

[Published annually^ in August, and dated the year 
following thai in which it is issued. 

1% 



THE LAW OP LANDLORD AND TENANT IN 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 

By J, H. Hammond, B.A., LL.B., and C. a W. 

Davidson, B.A., LL3., Barristers-at-Law. 

Demy 8vo., cloth gilt^ 25s, {post fre€ 

25s. lOd,). 
Sydney Moaning HeeaIiD^ *^ , . . a valuable coutribu- 
tion to legal literature. . . * The attthoTa have iueorpDrated 
the vstriouB Statutes ia force in tlio State, annotating them with 
care, precision^ and judgment* The notes and references have 
relation, uot oaly to decisions in this and the other States of 
the Commonwealth, but also to English decisions under Statutes 
heJd to be in force in New South Wales. . . . The value of 
the work, which bears evidence of clo.^e and careful research, is 
enhanced bj the fact that hitherto there has been no text-book 
which completely embraced the subject." 

Daily Telegkaph: '*It must be said that the joint autbora 
have done their work in an able and thorough way, the 560 
pages which the book contains being replete with matters of 
moment to those desirous of a^ertaining the state of the law 
on rather a complicated subject. . . . The whole of the 
local law of landlord and tenant is presented in a concise form 
to the profession and the general public.^' 



THE LAND AND INCOME TAX LAW OF 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 

By M. M, D*Arcy Irvine, B.A,, SoUaitor of the 
Supreme Court. Demy 8vo., cloth giltj 423. 
{post free 4Bs.). 

The Sydney Morn mo Hehald; *'We h&ye here a complete 
review of the direct taxation scheme of the 8tate for the last 
ten years; an authoritative review which gives the law itself 
and its interpretation. . . , Mr, D^Arcy Irvine does not 
inflict upon us the long descriptions of the road to a deeisloB 
which some judges find it necessary or expedient to make. He 
gives us thu decision, the one Lmportatit matter, and little 
else/' 

Daily TEtEORAPH: *'The author has done his work in a moat 
thorough way, and has produced what should be a valuable con- 
tribution to local legal literature. Horeover, the subject is 
dealt with in such a perspicuous style ^ that a layman, by perusal 
of it, should have no difficulty in ascertaining exactly where he 
stands with regard to the Acts bearing upon this form of taxa- 
tion*'' 



17 



1 



THB jaBTIOES' MANUilL AND POLICE GUIDE 

Jl Synopnift of oir«ncea puntaba^blft by Indietmeiit and an 
•umin«.j^ eonvloUnn, deflnmoafl of crlmea, meiuilii^ft of 
l«g&l pKFKft«i« hints on evidence, ppoce£tur«, police dutiei, 
m^. In Nttw South Wales. 

Compiled by Daniel Stephen, Senior-Sargeant at 
Police. Second edition, revised in accordance 
with Btat€ and Federal Enactments to the end 
of 1905, and enlarged by the inclusion of a 
eoneise summary of Commercial Law, Crown j 
8vo., cloth gilt, 6s. (post free 6$, 6d.). \ 

SYDNrr MOBNBfO Heilujj* "Jugticea of the peace and otbers 
concerned in the administration of the law wUl find the value 
of this admirably-arranged work. . . > We had nothing bist 
praise for the first editma, and the second edition la better than 
the first." 

TowK AHD CocJNTBY JOURNAL: ' * The author has put to|^ether 
a vast amount of useful and generally practical information 
likely to be mteresttngi as well as valuable, to justices of the 
peace, polieem&o, and all others concenied In the admiuistration 
of the law." 

Sydney Majl? *'A woll got up handbook that should prove 
of decided value to a large flection of the conimuQity, . . * 
Primarily intended for justices of the peace and policamen, it 
IB ao handil)' arranged, ao c^ncise^ and so eomprebensivef that 
it should appeal to everyone who wants to know just how he 
ataads in regard to the law of the land, ' ' 

8yd KEY Wool and Stock Journal i "The book praetieally 
uiakea every man his own lawyer, and enables him to see at a 
glanee what the low is upon any given point, and will save 
more than ita coat at (^^he first consultatioa/* 

Sydney Stock and Station Journal: '*To speak of a work 
of this kind as being iDtcrcsting would doubtless eause surprifle; 
but it is most certainly a very iuteresting work. We strongly 
recommend it. * ' 



0OOKEK7 BOOK OF GOOD AND TRIED 
RECEIPTS 

Compiled for th© PresbyteHan Women"* MUalenary 
Aisoolatian^ 

Tenth edition, enlarged^ completing the 95th 
thousand. Grown 8vo.j cloth, Is. (post free 



Is. 3d.}. 



IH 



IRRIGATION WITH SURFACE AT^D SUBTER 
KANEAN WATERS, AND LAND DRAINAGE. 

By W. Gibbons Cox, C,E. With 81 illustrations 
and a coloured map of Australia, Crown 8vo., 
clofch gilt, 3a. 6d. (poH free, 4s,). 

The Austealabian : ' ' The work under notiee^ whieli has 
ipeeiul reference to the utiliaaticm of artesian ami sub-arteaiati 
water, is the most valuable eontribution to the literature on 
the subjects dealt with that bas jet appeared in Australia**^ 

Sydney Moentnq Herald i ''The chief value of the book will 
be, perbaps, for the individual irrigationiat. The author goea 
into detail ou most phases of small achemes. . . . He takea 
various crops and fniit treea separately, and givm a lot of 
jound information on the question. The sinking of wells, tbe 
erection of reseTVoirSy ditehea, cheeks, aad gradiag are all con- 
iidered,'* 

t^vpNEY Daily Telkokapk : * A valimble addition to Aus- 
tralian agricultural literature. . . . The major portion of 
the book is eonceroed with irrigation, both by surface and 
subterranean waters, and eaeh subject b earefvdly elaborated 
with the aid of uumerous illustrations, , . . The book 
will, no doubt J materially assist the inland farmer in settling 
many vexed problems. ^ ' 

8yDNE"r Mail; '*Mr, Cox discusses exteusively t;he artesian 
water supply of Australia, and he avoids as mucb as possible 
technicalities iu bis descriptive matter. This makes the reading 
of his work both interesting and pleasurable, to say nothing of 
the educational vaJue of it. ... I can thoroughly recom- 
mend Hr, Cox^s book.'* 

Melbourne Age; **He baa gone thoroughly into his subject 
from the strictly utilitanan viewpoint, and bis carefully gleaned 
facts and figures, as well as bis manifold instructions \m to the 
correct way to irrigate and drain, should be of substantial 
asabtaTJce to the farmer. , , , Altogether tbe volume covers 
the subject in a markedly adequate fashion.'' 

Sydney Wool and Stock: Journal: ^^ Altogether it is by far 
the most comprehensive work on this important subject that has 
yet eome under our notice, and should be in tbe hands of all 
paatoralists who desire during aeuaons of plenty to prepare for 
the times of adversity, which, unfortunately, are bound to recur 
aooner or later. ' ' 

Fabmeb and Settlee: *' Avoiding technicalities, he sets out, 
in a manner which the ordinary reader ean easily follow, the 
sources from which water may be drawn, how to properly apply 
it to the diiferent classes of &oO, with due regard to cHraate and 
the amount of land to be irrigated^ and tbe proper constTuetion 
of Deceaaary appliances. ' ' 



19 



THE PLANTS OF NEW SOUTH WALES : 

Jin Anmlytieftl K«y to the FtoweHn^ Flants fexc^pt Ormsseft 
«.nd RuHliefl) and F«rni of the State, set out In ati ori^lnat 
lii«t1io(]f wltti i^liBt of native plants discovered atnce IB&B. 

By W. A, DmoN, PJ.C, F.C.S, With Glc^sary 
and 49 diagrams. Foolscap Svo,, cloth g^ilt, 
6s, ipmt free €s, 5d,). 

Nature: '*This is a haody little book ptoviding a compact 
guide for namiug fiowera in the field. - , . Tlie author lays 
streii on tlio extenaivo use made of vegetative eharacters for 
ideotifieation^ with which there can be onlj entire agreement so 
lottg as the characters are determinative." 

Daily Telkoraph (Sydney): ''The author baa sueeeedod in 
bringing hia mibject within the comprebension of the ordinary 
observer. In a concise introdnctory note, Mr, Dixon points 
out the difficulty of identifying plants by the use of scientific 
treatiaas, and substitutea a ay at em based on the use of in ore 
eaaily obaerved characters.*' | 

Sydney MoaNrNQ Herald: '*The book is interesting as well 
aa ingeiiious. It is a valuable contribution to the botanic litera- 
ture of Australia.'' 



SIMPLE TESTS FOR MINERALS. 



By JoBEPH Campbell, M.A.^ F.G.S.^ M.I.M. 
Fourth edition, revised and enlarged (com- 
pleting the ninth thousand). With Uiustra* 
tions. Cloth, round comers, 3s, 6d. {past 
free 3s, 9d.). 

Ballakat Star \ *' Tliia is an excellent little work, and sboukl 
be m the handa of every scientific and practieal miner/' 

Bendigo EvENrNG Maili "Should be in every prospector's 
kit. It euablea any intelligent man to ascertain for himself 
whether any mioeral he may discover baa a commercial value,*' 

BuNDABEnrr Btar: *'A handy and useful book for miners 
and all interested in the mining indiistry*^' 

Newcastle Moenijiq Herald: "The book ii a thorougbly 
practical one.'* 

Wyai^ng Stak: "Now it will be possible for miiiurs nnd 
proBpectori to test any miiieral which haa a commercial value," 



[.E.| 



I 
I 



20 



THE GEOLOGY OF SYDNEY AND THE 
BLUE MOUNTAINS : 

A populaF IntTo duct ion to the Bludy of Aukti^liati Geology 

By Rev. J. Milne Cubean, late Lecturer in 
Chemistry and Geology, Technical College, 
Sydney- Prescribed by the Department of 
Public Instruction, N.S.W., for First and 
Second Class Teachers' Examinations, Sec- 
ond edition. .With a Glossary of Scientific 
Terms, a Eeference List of cammonly-occur- 
ring Tossils, 2 coloured maps, and 83 illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo., cloth gilt, 6g. (post 
free 6s, 6d.). 

Nature ; * * TbU is, strictly speaking, an elementarj manual 
of geology. The general pl^^ of the work is goodj the book 
is well printer] and illuatratefl with maps, phatographie pictures 
'of rock structure aod sceuery, and figures of fossils and rock 
sections* ' ' 

Saturday Eeview: ''His style is animated and inspiring^ or 
clear and precise, as occasion demands. The people of Sydney 
are to be coDgratulated on tbe existence of sueli a guide to their 
beautiful country. * ' 

Sydney Morn mo Herald; '* Though the book deserves to bn 
made a University text, it will have another distinction, perhaps 
more agreeable to the author — that of being a means by which 
the iutelHgenec of many a reader will be directed trt that science 
of the earth, the materials and the monuments of which are 
beneath our feet continually.^' 

Daily Telegraph ; * * Mr. Cur ran more than justifies his claim 
to an independent method of presenting his gathered stores of 
knowledge. The style, simple, clear, and en t icing, leaves nothing 
to be desired; and even a child's eye, caught in some trick of 
famiJiar, if involuntary, association by pictures, must pause in 
the responsive desire to know all about it. ' ' 

Town and Country Journal t '* There has always been a 
painful sense of distance in the study of geology as taught in 
our schools. ... To get a real grip of the science, it is 
absolutely necessaiy that the student should see something for 
himself, and tho author endeavours to bring the seienee home 
to the Australian student by basing this popular introductioo to 
the study of it on the material literally at his doors. ' ' 

The Argus : * ^ As a handbook for schools in which it is 
desired to interest the advanced classes in the study of nature^ 
the volume has great value." 

%\ 



THE GROWTH OF THE EMPIRE : 

Mk HvJidlKMli to tliii Hift^py c»f Qr«&t#r Brlt&lit. 

By Abthue W, Jose, author of *'A Short Hktojy 
of Aiistralasia," Prescribed by the Depart* 
ment of labile Instruction, N.S.W., for First 
and Second Class Teachers* Certificate Exami- 
nations. Second edition. With 14 maps. 
Crown 8vo., cloth gilt, 4s. 6d- {post free 
SB.). 

MoENtKQ Post; * * This book is published in Sytlney, but it 
rfee^n-ea to be cireuJated tlirougliottt the ITaited Kingdom. Tbe 
picture of the fashion in whieh British entt^rprise maile its 
way from settlement to settJement has never been flran^'u morfl 
TiTidlj than in these pages, Mr, Jose's style m eriap and 
pltasantf now- and thee eveo rising to eloqiience on his grain] 
theme. His book deserve wide popularity, and it has the rare 
merit of beijig ao written as to be attractive alike to the yoting^ 
student and to the mature man of letters,'^ 

LrTERATUREt "He has studied thoroughly, and writes vigor- 
otialy, , . t Admirably done. * . . We eommend it to 
Britona the world over.*' 

Saturday Review t **He writes TmperiaUj^ he also often 
writes sympathetically- , . . We cannot cloie Mr. Jose's 
oreditable account of our misdoings without a glow of nationai 
pride.'' 

Yorkshire Post: *^A brighter short history we do not know, 
and this book de^erves^ for the matter and the raanner of it, 
to be fts well known as Mr. McCarthy *b * History of Our Own 
Timea.' " 

TwE Scotswan: ". . , . a thoughtfuJ, woU-vvrittenj and 
well-arranged history,*' | 

The Spkctator; "He certainly possesses the faculty of pre* 
senting a clear siimmary, and always appears to hohl the scales 
fairly. . . . We can heartily commend both tbe subject and 
style of this able and most admirably arranged history of the 
British Empire* * ' 

Glasgow Heeald: "Aa exceUent specimen of the vigorous 
work produced by the School of History at Oxford J ' 

S^CHOOL WORLO: "A finely written, fascinatingly interesting, 
and most inspiring history of the expansion of England. No 
better preliminary survey need be rci^uired. ' ' 

London: John Murray, 



4 



I 
I 



22 



M^ 




HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA i 

Frdm tho EaFlt^at TtmeH to the Inau^aratlon of the 
Comm on wealth 

By Arthur W. Jose, author of **The Growth of 
the Empire.*' The chapter on Federation 
revised by R. B. Garran, C.M.G. Prescribed 
by the Department of Public InstruetioTi, 
N.S.W., for Second and Third Class Teachers' 
Certificate Examinations. Witli 6 maps ;md 
64 portraits and illustrations. Twelfth 
thousand . Crown Svo*, cloth ^ Is. 6d, ; paper 
cover^ Is. (postage 4^?.), 

DaHjY TfJjEGRAPU: ** There was ample room for a cleverly 
condensed, clear, and jet thoroughly live aecoiint of these 
colonies such as Mr. Jose now presents us with.*' 

Sydney Moening Herald i ' ' Possibly we have not jet reached 
the distance in point of time from the events here recorded to 
permit the writing of a real history of Australasia; but Mr. 
Jose has done good work in the aecumulatioii and orderly 
arrangement of details, and the intelligent reader will derive 
much profit from this little book*" 

The Book Lover: ''The ignorance of the average Australian 
youth about the brief history of his native la^d is often deplor- 
able. . , , *A Short History of Australasia/ by Arthur W, 
Jose^ just provides the thing wanted. Mr. Jose's previous his- 
torical work wits moat favourably received in England^ and this 
story of our land h capitally done. It ia not too long, and it 
is brightly written, its value is considerably enhanced by the 
i useful maps and interesting illustrations," 

I VicixVRiAN Education Gazette: '^The language is graphic 

I and simple, and there is much evidence of careful work and 

I ae<jtiaintftnce with original documents, which give the reader 

confidence in the accuracy of the details. The low price of 

the book leaves young Australia no excuse for remaining in 

ignorance of the history of their native land. * * 

Town and Country Journal l *'The language ia graphic and 
' simple, and he has maintained the unity and continuity of 

the story of events, despite the necessity of following the sub- 
I ject along the seven branches corresponding with the sfven 

separate colonies." 



m 



CHURCH SERVICES, FOR USE BY LAYMEN. 

Prepared on the Aatliority of the Presbjterian 
Charch of Australia (State of New Sonth 
Wales). Foolscap 8vo., cloth gilt, 2e. 6cL 
{po»t free ^s. 9iLl 

The Msssenoer: **It will be Btrange if these prajers do ijot 
©a mo to he ufied apart from tbeir direct intention, aa, for iu- 
itance, in the home. ' ' 

TABLES FOR QUALITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 

Arranged for the iise of students by A. LrvEs- 

siDGE, M.A., LIj*D*f P.R.S.j Professor of 

Chemistry in the University of Sydney. 

Second edition, Royal 8vo., cloth giltj 4s. 6d. 

{post free 4s. 9d.). 

Chemicai* News : * * Altogether the book la a uaef ul, thoroughly 

workable text-book^ and one that is likely to find considerable 

favouT iviih teachers of ebemistTy. There is a complete index, 

and the price is very reasonable, * ' 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INFINITESIMAL 
CALCULUS. 

By H. S. Cakslaw, M.A., D.Se., F.R.S.E., Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in the University of 
Sydney. Demy 8vo., cloth gilt, 5s. {post free 
5s. 3d.). 

The TiMEfi: '^Conciae lucidity is the key-note of the book. 
, , , , ProfcBsor Carslaw may be congratulated upon hav- 
ing prDduced ao adiiiirable book, which should be useful to 
young eugineera aod seietwje students, both during and after 
their oolJege courses.^' 

Knowledgk: ''The obje<Jt has been to present the funda- 
mental ideas of the Calculus in a simple manner, and to Hlua- 
trat© them by practical examples. It will prove a very useful 
book for use, espeeiallj in technical schools. ' 

ABRIDGED MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 

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24 



I 



Jl 



THE CUTTER^S GUIDE. 

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CIVICS AND MORALS. 

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ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY: THEORETICAL AND 
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m 



GEOGRAPHY OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

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ENGLISH GRAMMAR, COMPOSITION, AND 

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By Jamks ConwaYj Heaihnaster at Clevelaud-stJ 
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A SMALLER ENGLISH GRAMMAR, COMPDSmQN. 

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CAUSERIES FAMILIERES ; or FRIENDLY CHATS. 

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29 



GEOGRAPHY OF AUSTRALIA AND 
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30 



M^JL 



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32 



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